In the second century hijrah, the Righteous Salaf became embroiled in a bitter war against the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah who entered "ilm al-Kalaam" into the Ummah. This "ilm al-kalam" is in reality speech about Allaah and speech about the Qur'an and speech about Allaah's attributes upon the conceptual baggage and terminology of Aristotle, a man whose logic and philosophy had already corrupted the aqidah of the Jews, Christians and Sabeans with respect to Allaah and His Attributes. Hence, instead of the language of the Tawheed of the Messengers, which is to affirm for Allaah what He and His Messenger affirmed for Him with denial of tamtheel (likening) and tashbeeh (resembling) - (a uniform, consistent principle for all of what Allaah is described with) - they adopted the language of Aristotle, and specifically his Ten Categories (al-Maqulat al-Ashar) as a basis for their Tawhid:
The first category deals with "what something is":
- substance (jawhar)
The rest are incidental attributes (a'raad, also referred to as "accidents") which deal with "how it is":
- quantity (al-kam) - dimensions and measurable features, length, breadth, width and so on
- quality (al-kayf) - perceived characteristics, color, shape, and so on.
- relation (al-idaafah) - how a substance is in relation to others, above, below, right, left and so on.
- place (al-ayn) - where it is
- time (mataa) answering "when?" - temporal characteristics of the substance
- position (al-wad') - how a substance's parts are ordered in relation to each other
- action (yaf'al) acting - what a substance is doing
- affection (yanfa'il) a substance being acted upon
- having (al-mulk) - what the substance has on
So essentially, Tawhid changed from having tasdeeq in what the Messenger informed with respect to His Lord of attributes and actions, alongside affirming that there is no likeness to Him in that regard, to having tasdeeq in the language of a star-worshipper who used the motion (harakah) observed in the Universe as a foundation for affirming an eternal, unmoved "First Cause" which he subsequently described as "not a body, not in space, not in time, without parts, indivisble..." And whoever cannot see that this language for their version of Tawhid is but the language of Aristotle brought to the Muslims through the Jahmiyyah, Mu'tazilah, Rafidah, Ash'ariyyah and Maturidiyyah is either ignorant or dishonest. This was the "kalam" that the Salaf condemned and declared the one who spoke about Allaah on its basis as a heretic, astray and deviant.
Certainly we are not deceived by the fact that these people claim to refute the atheists and Philosophers by trying to prove that the universe is originated (as opposed to being eternal). This is a ploy to hide and conceal the fact that they are in total agreement with those very same atheists and Philosophers (from them Ibn Sina) regarding the way they describe their deity (see right here). For they are all united upon making that conceptual baggage to be the language of truth and authority in describing Allaah, the Most High, over and above the revealed texts. In turn, they subjected the revealed texts to the washing machine of tanzeeh which they manufactured with two flavours, that of ta'weel (light) [innovated by the Jahmiyyah, Mu'tazilah] and that of tafweed (heavy duty) [innovated by the Ash'arites of the fifth century hijrah] - all so that these texts could be made to conform to that language which they made their foundation and so that the speech of Allaah could be cleansed of the "stains" of apparent Tajseem and tashbeeh they allege it contains. Their so called "tanzeeh" is unlike the tanzeeh of the Salaf which is to affirm what Allaah and His Messenger affirmed for Him whilst negating tamtheel and takyeef - this is the tanzeeh of the Salaf, as is clear from hundreds of their statements - it is not to distort and reject the attributes or explain them away after alleging that there is inherent tashbeeh within them - the Salaf were never upon that.
So the war began in the second century between the Righteous Salaf such as Ayub al-Sakhtiyaani, Hammaad bin Zaid, Imaam al-Zuhree, Imaam al-Awzaa'ee, Sufyan bin Uyainah, Imaam Malik bin Anas, Imaam al-Shaafi'ee and many others against the Jahmiyyah and their figureheads and they fought against them with respect to the major symbols of Islamic belief established in the Qur'an and the Sunnah which their heretical ilm al-Kalaam was attempting to undermine and characterize as "kufr" and "shirk" on the basis of that conceptual baggage and terminology of Aristotle. So they began to deny that Allaah is above His Throne (see here), that He will be seen in the Hereafter with the vision of the eyes, that He speaks as and when He wills, and that He is described with Names, attributes and actions and they began to use that terminology (ajsaam, a'raad, hawaadith) to fight against the creed of the Muslims, being deceived into thinking that just because they were proving the universe is originated through this language, it was also acceptable in describing Allaah, the Most High in affirmation and negation.
So with this brief introduction, we will (in the next article) commence our commentary on this lecture and prove and establish that Atabek Shukrov Nasafi in his position on al-uluww is following Aristotle bin Nicomachus of Stageira, Philo Judaeus of Alexandria, Augustine of Hippo, the Sabeans of Harraan, al-Jahm bin Safwan, al-Ja'd bin Dirham, Bishr al-Mareesee, the Mu'tazilites of Basrah and Baghdad, the Raafidi Mu'tazilah, Ibn Sina and others and that he is blatantly dishonest by pretending he is propounding the position of the Salaf in this matter.