|Wednesday, 28 July 2021|
Never see Ash'ariyyah in the same light, ever again! Aristotle of Stageira, Philo of Alexandria, Augustine of Hippo, the Sabeans of Harraan, the Mu'tazilites of Basrah and Baghdad and the Jahmite Ash'ari Heretics of Today Claiming Orthodoxy. Read the first article, the second article, the third article, the fourth article, the fifth article.
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Taqi ad-Din an-Nabahani Is a Qadariyy Mutbadi' (Innovator), the Likes of Whom The Prophet ((alayhis salaam) Warned Against Severely - Third Installment
In the first installment of this article we established two things from an-Nabahani, that he does not consider the pillar of belief in "al-qadar" to be a firmly established sixth pillar of eemaan, but something that was added later on and made the sixth matter from the matters of eemaan. And secondly, he considers the disputes that took place regarding man's actions in relation to al-qadar to have nothing to do with the "qadaa" and "qadar" that is mentioned in the texts of the Book and the Sunnah.
In the second installment we covered an-Nabahani's analysis of the views on this subject, which he wrongly restricted to only two views (amongst the Muslims) - that of the Mu'tazilah Qadariyyah and that of the Jahmiyyah and Ash'ariyyah Jabariyyah.
We will continue surveying an-Nabahani's full discussion over this matter, which takes place between pages 66 and 111 of the first volume of "ash-Shakhsiyyah al-Islaamiyyah". Because it is a lengthy section, we can't provide screenshots for all the passages, so you can download the entire section in PDF form which you can use to follow along with this article:
Synopsis of an-Nabahani's Explanation of the Terms "al-Qadaa" and "al-Qadar"
From pages 79 to 83, an-Nabahani gives his understanding of what al-qadar is and he begins this section with the title "al-Qadar" and opens with the following:
The phrase "al-qadaa wal-qadar" which was used by the Mutakallimoon (Theologians) as a label referring to a concept which they took from the Greek Philosophers, it had not previously been used for this meaning, neither in the language nor in legislatively (in the Sharee'ah texts). And now, let it be made clear to what extent is the meaning of al-qadar and the meaning of al-qadaa, linguistically and legislatively, far removed from the meaning which was devised for them by the Mutakallioon. We will address their meanings as they have come in the language and in the Sharee'ah texts...
Note here that he is expelling the discussion of the issue of man's will (iraadah) and ability (qudrah) outside of (what he considers) the meanings of al-qadaa and al-qadar - so this means that when Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jamaa'ah, the Righteous Imaams of the Salaf in the first three centuries of Islaam (before the Ash'aris came onto the scene), that when they clarified the truth, and refuted both the Qadariyyah and Jabariyyah, that their discussion of this matter, and their corroboration of the truth, was also far removed from what an-Nabahani considers to be "al-qadaa wal-qadar".
The Meaning of al-Qadar
Then he proceeds over the next few pages to present the linguistic meanings of "al-qadar" as they have come in the Sharee'ah texts.
He quotes (p. 79-82) verses from the Qur'an and some ahaadeeth from which he explains that al-qadar means a firm, decisive judgment, and determination, and apportioning, and affixing. And he explains that the understanding of the Companions of the word "al-qadar" was Allaah's knowledge ("ilm") and the writing of that knowledge in the Preserved Tablet (which is what is referred to as "taqdeer").
He concludes by saying (p. 82) that "al-qadar" is from the word that carry numerous meanings such as "taqdeer" (apportioning, determining), and "ilm (knowledge) and "tadbeer" (regulation) and "waqt" (timing) and "tahiyah" (preparation), and giving everything its specific properties. After listing these he says that despite all these various multiple meanings, that in none of these texts has it come that the meaning of "al-qadar" is that man is compelled to act, or that it is the ruling that pertains to all the details and particulars of things, or that it is a secret from the secrets of Allaah and the likes.
He then says (p. 82-83):
And from this it becomes clear that these meanings which are in the verses, the intent from them is not the "qadar" in which the Mutakallimoon (theologians, i.e. the Jahmiyyah Jabariyyah, the Ash'ariyyah Jabariyyah and the Mu'tazilah Qadariyyah) differed over afterwards, and that the meanings which are in the ahaadeeth, what is intended by them is the taqdeer of Allaah and His knowledge, which refers to its writing into the Preserved Tablet. And it has no involvement in the study of "al-qadaa wal-qadar" which the Mutakallimeen introduced.
An-Nabahani then proceeds to bring some ahaadeeth from which he concludes that "al-qadar" refers to Allaah's knowledge (ilm) and taqdeer (firm decision, determination of things) and it is what is written in the Preserved Tablet.
Then he says at the end of the chapter:
And all of this is from the topic of Allaah's Attributes, and that He is Allaah, He knows of all things before their occurrence, and that they proceed upon "qadar" from Him, meaning upon knowledge (ilm). And this does not enter into the study of "al-qadaa wal-qadar" (meaning, upon what the Theologians discussed)
From all the above it is clear that "al-qadar" to an-Nabahani is restricted just to Allaah's knowledge of all things and the writing down of all things, upon Allaah's foreknowledge and firm determination of them (and what this "determination" of things means will be further qualified by an-Nabahani a little later), and here he has not included the will and ability (iraadah and qudrah) of the servant within what the term "al-qadar" covers.
The Meaning of al-Qadaa
An-Nabahani spends two pages (pp. 84-85) on the meaning of "al-qadaa" which he explains as "passing a judgment, judging and determining between two people, making something with precision, making a matter to pass by" and so on. He brings numerous verses in the Qur'an, through which he outlines the linguistic meanings and after this he concludes (p. 85):
And upon this (what has preceded), the qadaa that has come in the verses, is not the one intended in "al-qadaa wal-qadar" in which the mutakallimeen differed afterwards. And there is no involvement of these verses in the study of "al-qadaa wal-qadar", just as there is no involvement of the verses and ahaadeeth which comprise the meaning of al-qadar in the study of "al-qadaa wal-qadar". For these verses and ahaadeeth speak about the attributes of Allaah and about the actions of Allaah, [whereas] "al-qadaa wal-qadar" (i.e. of the mutakallimeen) investigate the action of the servant. And the study in these verses is legislative (shar'ee) and its meanings are linguistic whereas the study of "al-qadaa wal-qadar" with the mutakallimeen is rational (intellectual). And these verses and ahaadeeth are explained with their linguistic and shar'ee (legislative) meanings, whereas the study of "al-qadaa wal-qadar" is a usage (of a phrase) for a meaning devised by the Mutakallimoon (Theologians).
So we see hear that an-Nabahani, just like with the term "al-qadar" has expelled the meanings of "al-qadaa" outside of what relates to the actions of man, and he has limited its application and usage to linguistic meanings.
An-Nabahani on Al-Qadaa wal-Qadar
Next he has a chapter of around 11 pages on "al-Qadaa wal-Qadar" where he starts to complete his idea and conception on this subject.
An-Nabahani states (p. 86) again that the topic of "al-qadaa wal-qadar" with his term, was something stirred up after the presence of Greek philosophy amongst the Muslims, and translation of their works.
Basically, what he is saying here is that these verse pertain to Allaah's knowledge (and this is what is "al-qadar" to an-Nabahani), and when they were revealed the Companions memorized them and understood them and the topic of "al-qadaa wal-qadar" (i.e. as it relates to man's actions) never occurred to them. And that in addition to this, these verses in their meaning, understanding and indication are an explanation of Allaah's knowledge (ilm), and they have no connection to the topic of "al-qadaa wal-qadar".
He brings a verse in which Allaah affirms that all of what comes to the disbelievers, good or evil, is from Allaah - and an-Nabahani is quick to point out that:
You need to pay careful attention here, because an-Nabahani makes a distinction between the actions that a man does himself directly, over which he has iraadah and qudrah (will and power) and between those things that happen to him without his will and power. So he is saying that even this particular verse in which Allaah says to the disbelievers, that all of what comes to you, good or evil, is from Allaah, then an-Nabahani distinguishes here between what comes to them of evil through things outside their will or power (such as harm, death), and between what they perform of their own actions.
This is important to understand because it is here we start seeing that an-Nabahani is outlining the Qadaree belief which expels man's actions, outside of al-qadaa wal-qadar, and he will confirm it as we go along.
After the next few paragraphs (p. 90-91), after repeating much of what he has said previously, he goes on to explain the necessity of now looking at this particular topic of "al-qadaa wal-qadar", meaning that which the Mutakallimoon (Theologians) engaged in, and in which he considers to be not connected to the meanings of "al-qadaa" and "al-qadar" that he has explained, which he considers to be Allaah's knowledge and the writing of that knowledge.
In other words he is going to express his own opinion and evaluation of what the Theologians discussed and debated regarding "al-qadaa wal-qadar" and his previous chapters on "al-qadaa" and "al-qadar" were laying the foundations for this evaluation and the presentation of what he deems to be the truth.
He defines (p. 91) the subject matter which is "the actions of the servants" and "the specific properties of things", as it relates to the results of man's actions on things, such as a man's action of cutting something on that thing, or a man's action of striking another and the pain produced. The issue is that is man creating his own action when he performs it and likewise the properties or characteristics arising in things as a result of man's action, are they too from his creation or not? This he explains is what the Theologians discussed under "al-qadaa wal-qadar". Then he proceeds to outline three views, that of the Mu'tazilah Qadariyyah, and then that of the Jahmiyyah Jabariyyah and the Ash'ariyyah Jabariyyah, which he as already stated before that they are essentially the same and the Ash'ariyyah failed miserably in trying to differentiate their view from that of the Jabariyyah.
To provide the answer to this question, an-Nabahani then classifies (p. 92-93) the various domains in which a man lives into:
He then further classifies (pp. 93-94) the second into:
He says (p. 94) that all of these things which are things that happen to man, outside of his control, these are collectively called "al-qadaa", because Allaah is the one who ordained (qadaa) the actions (within this domain, sphere) - pay attention to this, as this is crucial to understanding what an-Nabahani is outlining here. He continues to say that Allah will not call a servant to account for these types of actions, because has no influence over them, and thus he is neither rewarded nor punished for them - and regarding all of these things, which make up what he considers to be "al-qadaa", he says that this is "al-qadaa" that a man must have faith in, that it is from Allaah, the Most High.
Then he goes back to discuss the domain in which man has the sphere of influence and chooses his actions:
Then he begins to discuss "al-qadar".
Over the next two pages (pp. 95-96) an-Nabahani explains (in his view) what "al-qadar" is. He states that it refers to the actions occuring from things or to things which are of the substance of the universe, or man, or life, and these actions lead to effects, in other words they lead to the existence of some other matter. So the question is that when man's actions lead to such things arising, is man the one who created that property in that thing, or did Allaah create this result as a specific property of that thing, just like He created that thing itself?
Thus, what "al-qadaa" and "al-qadar" refer to have been clearly explained by an-Nabahani, and then in closing this section he says, and it is here that an-Nabahani explicitly espouses the evil bid'ah of the Qadariyyah:
So the thought is complete and we have detailed all of this in length so as not to let anyone claim that an-Nabahani's words or conception of this matter has been distorted or twisted. Rather, his doctrine is the essence of the Qadarite doctrine - and is strange and amazing to see a man who is of Ash'ari / Maturidi background to wander into the dens of the Mu'tazilah. The most likely reason for this is that an-Nabahani trashed (as we saw in the previous article) the Ash'arite attempt to refute the Mu'tazilah. The Ash'arites position in reality was in agreement with that of the Jabariyyah despite their attempts to to conceal it cleverly by plays with terms and definitions. As this did not satisfy an-Nabahani, he wandered into the snares of the Mu'tazilah. We should not forget that an-Nabahani considers all the different and contradictory viewpoints of these groups, the Jahmiyyah, Qadariyyah, Mu'tazilah, Ash'ariyyah to be from the Islamic aqidah - and thus it is not surprising that he arrives at the view of the Mu'tazilah.
Guidance and Misguidance
If the above was not enough, then an-Nabahani leaves absolutely no doubt whatsoever in the next chapter when continuing to outline his conception. The next chapter which runs from pages 98 to 103 is about guidance and misguidance.
He starts the chapter:
Then over the next two pages an-Nabahani explains that the verses in which Allaah says that He guides and misguides only refer to Allaah creating the initial capacity (qaabiliyyah) of guidance and misguidance in man, and that it is man who performs guidance or misguidance and that the proof for this (particular understanding of an-Nabahani in his distortion and twisting of these verses) is the other verses which ascribe guidance and misguidance to man (see page 101).
Whilst it is true that man is the actual performer, in his actions, of guidance and misguidance, what an-Nabahani means here is that man's actions of guidance and misguidance are outside of the domain of "al-qadaa wal-qadar" which he explained in the previous chapter, since acts of guidance or misguidance are from the genus of man's wilful chosen actions, which according to an-Nabahani have no connection to "al-qadaa wal-"qadar".
He says (p. 99):
Note the use of "mubaasharah" and "mubaashir" in this passage referring to the direct agency (in performing), and in the next chapter after this one, which relates to the absolute cause of death (the end of one's lifespan), an-Nabahani uses this word (al-mubaashir) to single out Allaah as the sole, direct immediate cause of death (see page 104).
Thus, whilst Allaah only creates the capacity (for guidance and misguidance), it is man, according to an-Nabahani, who guides himself, is misguided or misguides others - through his own willfully chosen actions which are outside the domain of "al-qadaa wal-qadar" as has preceded.
As for the rational evidence, then an-Nabahani explains this on page 101, that if guiding and misguiding was attributed to Allaah directly, then his punishment of the disbeliever, hypocrite and sinner would be injustice and oppression. This is the same argument of the Mu'tazilah to argue the case that man create's his own actions, outside Allaah's domain of control.
An-Nabahani is a Qadariyy Mubtadi' who affirms another creator alongside Allaah, which is man creating his own actions outside of the domain of "al-qadaa wal-qadar". Ibn Umar narrates that the Prophet (alayhis salaam) said:
القدرية مجوس هذه الأمة إن مرضوا فلا تعودوهم و إن ماتوا فلا تشهدوهم
The Qadariyyah are Magians of this Ummah. If they fall ill do not visit them, and if they die, do not prayer over them.
This hadeeth was reported by al-Haakim, who declared it authentic (Saheeh) upon the conditions of al-Bukhari and Muslim, upon the assumption that Abu Haazim (one of its narrators) heard from Ibn Umar. Abu Dawud, and at-Tirmidhi also declared it to be Hasan, as did Ibn Hajr, and also Imaam al-Albani in Saheeh al-Jaami' (no. 4442). And in general, the censure of the Qadariyyah is very severe in the words of righteous Salaf and Imaams of the Ummah.
With this being established, alongside an-Nabahani also affirming the saying of the Ash'arites that the Qur'an we have in our presence is a created expression (the saying of the Jahmiyyah which is tantamount to kufr), and affirming the generality of the creed of the Ash'ariyyah regarding the Attributes, and limiting faith in Allaah to pretty much affirming His existence and some of His attributes, then it is little surprise that he, like his co-Ash'arites contemporary to him (i.e. Qutb) simply borrowed the methodologies from Western secular philosophies (Ba'thism, Communism) and moulded them with Islam, in order to mobilize the Muslims towards revolutions in order to establish "social justice".
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