Wednesday, 22 May 2019   







Never see Ash'ariyyah in the same light, ever again! Aristotle of Stageira, Philo of Alexandria, Augustine of Hippo, the Sabeans of Harraan, the Mu'tazilites of Basrah and Baghdad and the Jahmite Ash'ari Heretics of Today Claiming Orthodoxy. Read the first article, the second article, the third article, the fourth article, the fifth article.
You are here: Home Articles
Abdul-Kareem Ash-Shahrastani, Sixth Century Ash'ari (d. 548H): Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari Broke the Ijmaa' and Innovated a Third Saying On the Subject of Allaah's Speech and the Qur'an
Posted by Abu.Iyaad, in Articles
Topics: Ibn Kullaab Kullaabiyyah Shahrastani Al-Shahrastani Nihaayat Ul-Iqdaam Qur'an Kalaam Nafsee

  Mail To Friend    Printer Friendly Bookmark and Share

The Ash'aris reject Allaah's speech is with letter and voice (al-harf was-sawt) and this is something that all factions without exception were united upon (that speech is with letter and voice) despite their different sayings regarding Allaah's speech (whether it is created or not), up until Ibn Kullaab and the Kullaabiyyah came and along and until Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari followed them in that. There was actually no dispute about that at all, there was ijmaa' that speech is letter and voice (al-harf was-sawt), and that Allaah speaks with letter and voice.

Abdul-Kareem ash-Shahrastani (d. 584H), one of the important figures of the Later Ash'aris himself writes that Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari, in this subject of Allaah's speech (Kalaam) and letter and voice (al-harf was-sawt), that he broke the ijmaa' that existed previously and innovated a third saying not known before. In reality, it was Ibn Kullaab and not al-Ash'ari - but we can look at the saying of ash-Shahrastani (d. 584H) in another article in much detail, it is from his book, "Nihaayat ul-Iqdaam", where he says (p. 177), whilst noting that ash-Shahrastani's statements in characterizing the view of the Salaf are not entirely accurate and precise, but there is enough in what he has said that approximates to what is correct:

فأبدع الأشعري قولاً ثالثاً وقضى بحدوث الحروف وهو خرق الإجماع وحكم بأن ما نقرأه كلام الله مجازاً لا حقيقة وهو عين الابتداع فهلا قال ورد السمع بأن ما نقرأه ونكتبه كلام الله تعالى دون أن يتعرض لكيفيته وحقيقته كما ورد السمع بإثبات كثير من الصفات من الوجه واليدين إلى غير ذلك من الصفات الخبرية

So al-Ash'ari innovated a third saying and judged with the emergence of the letters, and this is the destruction of the ijmaa' (concensus) and he judged that what we read is Allaah's speech only metaphorically (majaazan) not in reality (haqeeqatan) - and this is pure innovation. Why did he not (simply) say that the revelation mentions that what we read and write is the Speech of Allaah without (him) delving into its kaifiyyah (how it is) and its haqeeqah (its reality) - just like in the revelation many attributes have been mentioned such as Face, Two Hands and other than them from the sifaat Khabariyyah.

Here he is saying that al-Ash'ari broke the Ijmaa' and innovated a third saying, which is that the Qur'an is said to be Allaah's speech only "metaphorically", since their view was that Allaah's real Kalaam is the "Kalaam Nafsee", and not the letters and words that make up the Qur'an.

And in ascribing this innovation to al-Ash'ari, ash-Shahrastani is in error here because it was Ibn Kullaab and the Kullaabiyyah who originated this view and not al-Ash'ari himself. But this is the subject for a separate article as this quote is part of a longer passage that discusses other relevant issues so we can look at this in a separate article. And also, as mentioned previously, Ibn Hajr al-Asqalani (in Fath ul-Bari, Kitaab ut-Tawheed) rebuts the presumption of tashbeeh (which comes from the Ash'aris) that affirming "voice" (sawt) for Allaah necessitates that it requires what is required for voice amongst the servants of Allaah, Ibn Hajr rebuts this - and this will be documented in a separate article inshaa'Allaah.

Abu Nasr as-Sijzee (d. 444H) said in his book "Risaalah Ilaa Ahl Zubayd" - which is a book written to refute the Jahmite Lafdhiyyah taking the guise of "Ash'arites" - in the opening pages:

اعلموا ـ أرشدنا الله وإياكم ـ أنه لم يكن خلاف بين الخلق على اختلاف نحلهم من أول الزمان إلى الوقت الذي ظهر فيه ابن كلاب والقلانسي والصالحي والأشعري وأقرانهم الذين يتظاهرون بالرد على المعتزلة وهم معهم بل أخس حالاً منهم في الباطن في أن الكلام لا يكون إلا حرفاً وصوتاً ذا تأليف واتساق وإن اختلفت به اللغات

Know - may Allaah guide us and you - that there did not used to be any difference amongst the creation, despite the variance in their creeds, from the first era that Kalaam (speech) is not [anything] but letter (al-harf) and voice (as-sawt) that is composed, harmonious, even with the variation in languages [until] the time in which the likes of Ibn Kullaab, al-Qalaanisee, as-Saalihee and al-Ash'ari appeared, and their associates, those who make an open display of refuting the Mu'tazilah, whilst they are really with them, rather of a more vile condition than them inwardly.

You should note that there are scholars who did not take a liking to Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari and spoke in rather negative terms about him, this includes Scholars like Abu Ismaa'eel al-Harawee (d. 481H) and Ibn Qudaamah al-Maqdisee (d. 620H). What Ibn Taymiyyah has explained to be correct is that after leaving the doctrines of the Mu'tazilah for those of the Kullaabiyyah, Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari made a migration towards the madhhab of the people of Hadeeth and this became evident through his books that he wrote towards the end of his life, including al-Maqaalaat and al-Ibaanah. However, because his knowledge of ilm ul-kalaam was detailed and his knowledge of the sunnah was deficient, then he did not complete his migration completely and fully and still retained some influence from his past.

And Ibn Taymiyyah said in "Majmoo ul-Fataawaa" (6/528):

وكما أنه المعروف عند أهل السنة والحديث، فهو قول جماهير فرق الأمة، فإن جماهير الطوائف يقولون: إن الله يتكلم بصوت مع نزاعهم في أن كلامه هل هو مخلوق، أو قائم بنفسه؟ قديم أو حادث؟ أو ما زال يتكلم إذا شاء؟ فإن هذا قول المعتزلة، والكرامية، والشيعة وأكثر المرجئة، والسالمية، وغير هؤلاء من الحنفية والمالكية، والشافعية، والحنبلية، والصوفية.

وليس من طوائف المسلمين من أنكر أن الله يتكلم بصوت إلا ابن كلاب ومن اتبعه

And as this is known with Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Hadeeth, then it is also the saying of all of the sects of the Ummah, for the majority of all of the various factions say: "Allaah speaks with a voice" alongside their dispute(s) regarding whether His speech (Kalaam) is created (or not)? And is it established with His Self (or not)? And whether it is eternal (qadeem) or recent (haadith)? And whether He has never ceased being "one who speaks when He wills" (or not)?

For this (that Allaah speaks with a voice) is the saying of the Mu'tazilah, Karraamiyyah, Shee'ah, most of the Murji'ah, Saalimiyyah, and other than them from the Hanafiyyah, Maalikiyyah, Shaafi'iyyah, Hanbaliyyah and Soofiyyah.

And there is not from the factions of the Muslims anyone who rejected that Allaah speaks with a voice (sawt) except Ibn Kullaab and whoever followed him.

Also understand that the Ash'aris (following the Kullaabiyyah) were forced to reject that speech is with letter and voice (al-harf was-sawt) and to innovate the "Kalaam Nafsee" because they were trying to tread a middle ground between Ahl us-Sunnah and the Jahmiyyah, Mu'tazilah. So on the one hand they wanted to affirm the truth (Allaah has speech) and at the same time not invalidate their intellectual proof of "hudooth ul-ajsaam" (anything that is subject to occurrences, events must be created, which in the case of Allaah's Speech is Allaah speaking as and when He wills) - and thus "Kalaam" now became (to them):

  • just the meaning present with the Self of Allaah,
  • a singular indivisible meaning and
  • not tied to Allaah's will and power

These views were innovated in order to protect that intellectual proof of "hudooth ul-ajsaam", which argues that the presence of qualities (sifaat), incidental attributes (a'raad) and actions (af'aal, hawaadith) present in the bodies that make up the universe are a proof of those bodies being created, and thus the universe as a whole is created, and thus there must be a creator. This is actually a false, corrupt proof. But because they made this proof to be the ultimate rational truth upon which the veracity of the religion depends, they had to start fooling around with the revealed texts and innovate sayings in order not to falsify this proof, continuing the legacy of their Imaams in that, the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah.

And these three sayings above in relation to what is Allaah's "Kalaam" are the most evident plain, manifest falsehood which are invalidated, without any shadow of doubt, by the clear texts of the Book of Allaah. And the shrewd ones amongst them knew this full well, which is why Abu al-Mu'aalee al-Juwaynee (d. 478H) innovated another innovation to conceal the previous falsehood the earlier ones were upon. So al-Juwaynee said, as mentioned by Ibn Abi al-Izz in his Sharh of at-Tahaawiyyah, that al-Juwaynee's view was that what is referred to as Allaah's "Kalaam" (speech) is something that shares between a) the meaning that is established with Allaah's self (al-ma'naa al-qaa'imu bidh-dhaat) - which is what the Kullaabis and Early Ash'aris were upon - and b) what Allaah creates in other than Himself of letters, voices (which is what the Mu'tazilah said is Allaah's "Kalaam") - this is because the shrewd ones knew you can't go around saying "Kalaam" is just the singular meaning (al-ma'naa al-waahid) in the self - it can't be sustained, the Qur'an and Sunnah falsify it and it is known, its a matter of ijmaa' that "Kalaam" (speech) is both meaning (ma'naa) and wording (lafdh) - none of this was disputed until the Kullaabiyyah and Ash'ariyyah used an unverified line of poetry of a Christian Poet called al-Akhtal as a basis to argue that speech is the "meaning in the self", and then they went looking in the revealed texts for anything that would support them in this. It's a case of "believe first, and find evidence for it afterwards", which is what they did with "Kalaam Nafsee", they (the Kullaabiyyah) innovated this saying of theirs to reconcile between the deen of the Mu'tazilah and that of Ahl us-Sunnah, and then went looking for evidences for it in the texts.

And what al-Juwaynee has done - seeing the falsehood in that - is to simply combine the deen of the Mu'tazilah, with the deen of Ibn Kullaab by devising a new definition for what is "Kalaamullaah (the speech of Allaah)", and al-Juwaynee took much of the Kullaabi Ash'arite creed in this direction. Ibn Kullaab said Allaah's speech is just the "Kalaam Nafsee" and the Mu'tazilah said, Allaah's speech is what He creates in the servants of speech, and so al-Juwaynee said, why not just combine between them both so we can have the best of both views in trying to defend that intellectual proof called "hudooth ul-ajsaam", so he proposed a hybrid definition and also ascribed it to others from the Ash'arites (refer to his book "al-Irshaad") - and al-Juwaynee was responsible for taking much of the Ash'arite creed back towards the direction of the Mu'tazilah, in this same manner.


Link to this article:   Show: HTML LinkFull LinkShort Link
Share or Bookmark this page: You will need to have an account with the selected service in order to post links or bookmark this page.

                 
  
Subscribe via RSS or email:
Follow us through RSS or email. Click the RSS icon to subscribe to our feed.

     

Related Articles:
Add a Comment
You must be registered and logged in to comment.





Don't Be Deceived By the Terminology of the Jahmiyyah!
(Introduction) (al-jism) (al-'arad) (Hulul al-hawaadith) (al-tarkib
)

Series View More...

Topics
Basics
Scholars
History
Misconceptions
Ibn Taymiyyah
Articles
Sunni Answers
Audio
The Clinic

Latest Articles
The History and Origins of the Kalam Theology of the Asharis and Maturidis
Revelation, Philosophy and Kalam: The Creed of the Salaf Versus the Creed of the Asharis and Maturidis
The Creed of the Kullabi Asharis Preview: Part 11 - Concerning the Affirmation and Negation of Al-Hadd and the Doubts of the Jahmites
The Divine Attributes: The Righteous Salaf vs the Heretical Kalam Schools - Part 2: Which Door Did the Ash'aris and Maturidis Come Through?
The Divine Attributes: The Righteous Salaf vs the Heretical Kalam Schools - Part 1: Introduction
The Saying of the Salaf (منه بدأ وإليه يعود), Imaam Al-Tahawi's Uncreated Single Qur'an and Sa'eed Foudah's Two Qur'an Doctrine: Part 3
The Saying of the Salaf (منه بدأ وإليه يعود), Imaam Al-Tahawi's Uncreated Single Qur'an and Sa'eed Foudah's Two Qur'an Doctrine: Part 2
The Saying of the Salaf (منه بدأ وإليه يعود), Imaam Al-Tahawi's Uncreated Single Qur'an and Sa'eed Foudah's Two Qur'an Doctrine: Part 1
Another Dishonest and Resentful Jahmite (Nizar Hammadi) Trying to Malign Ibn Taymiyyah: Regarding Fakhr Al-Din Al-Razi's Confusion
Deconstructing the Micro Madrasa (Of Ilm Al-Kalaam and Tajahhum) of Ibrahim Osi-Efa (Liverpool, UK): Part 4

Pages
No pages found.

Most Popular
Destroying the Slander of Tajsim (Anthropomorphism) Against Ahl al-Sunnah wal-Jamaa'ah: Part 1 - Developing The Framework
Ibn Taymiyyah Compared With the Philosophers: Exposing Abu Adam al-Naruiji's Academic Fraud - Part 5: Ahl al-Sunnah, the Philosophers and Ahl al-Kalaam on Allaah's Actions and Origins of the Universe - Continued...
Aristotle of Stageira, Philo of Alexandria, Augustine of Hippo, the Sabeans of Harraan, the Mu'tazilites of Basrah and Baghdad and the Jahmite Ash'ari Heretics of Today Claiming Orthodoxy- Part 1
Ibn Taymiyyah Compared With the Philosophers: Exposing Abu Adam al-Naruiji's Academic Fraud - Part 4: Ahl al-Sunnah, the Philosophers and Ahl al-Kalaam on Allaah's Actions and Origins of the Universe
The American Chestnut Tree, The Willow Tree, Jahm Bin Safwan, The Mu'tazilah, Ibn Kullaab and the Early and Later Ash'aris - An Illustration
Abu Hamid al-Ghazali (Imaam of the Later Ash'aris): If the Prophet Invited to Belief in Allaah Through the Language and Terminology of the Ash'arites, Not even One in a Thousand Would Accept It! Rather the Majority Would Tend to Atheism!
Destroying the Slander of Tajsim (Anthropomorphism) Against Ahl al-Sunnah wal-Jamaa'ah: Part 2 - Ahl al-Sunnah, Ibn Kullab, al-Ash'ari and the Early Kullabis, Ash'aris
Destroying the Slander of Tajsim (Anthropomorphism) Against Ahl al-Sunnah wal-Jamaa'ah: Part 3 - The Mu'attilah and Mujassimah Share the Same Base and Foundation For Their Ta'teel and Tajseem
Undercover Ash'aris: Understanding The Intellectual Fraud Needed by Today's Ash'aris To Prop Up and Defend their (Neo-Jahmite) Creed: Analysis of a Sample of Marifah Apologeticism Regarding Distinction Between the Attributes - Part 1
Destroying the Slander of Tajsim (Anthropomorphism) Against Ahl al-Sunnah wal-Jamaa'ah: Part 9 - The Accusation of Tajsim and Tashbih Against al-Qadi Abu Ya'laa al-Hanbali

Archives (View more)
2018 • January
2017 • December
2014 • December
2013 • November
2013 • October
2013 • September
2013 • August
2013 • July
2013 • June
2011 • October
2011 • September
2011 • August


Key Topics
21st century kalam atomistabdullaah ibn al-mubaarakabdullah ali al-aminabdul-qadir al-jeelaaneeabdul-qadir al-jilaniabu abdullah bin hamidabu adam al-naruijiabu adam naruijiabu adam narujiabu al-abbas al-qalanisiabu al-hasan bin al-zaghuniabu al-hudhayl al-allaafabu ali al-ahwaziabu bakr al-baqillaniabu bakr al-ismaa'eeleeabu bakr al-isma'iliabu bilal malikiabu fadl al-tamimiabu hamid al-ghazaliabu hanifahabu hasan al-ash'ariabu isma'il al-harawiabu layth bin ataaabu mansur al-baghdadiabu ya'laaabul-hasan ibn mahdi at-tabariaccidentadh-dhahabeeadh-dhahabiaf'aal ikhtiyaariyyahahl al-kalaamahl al-kalamahmad bin sinan al-waasiteeahmed cobraakhbaar ul-aahaadal-aamideeal-akhtalal-amidial-'aradal-arshal-ash'areeal-asharial-ash'arial-baqillanial-bayhaqial-bukhaareeal-dhahabial-ghazalial-haddal-hawaadithal-ibanahal-istiwaaal-jahm bin safwanal-jawhar al-fardal-jihahal-jismal-juwayneeal-juwaynial-kawthareeal-khateeb al-baghdaadeeal-khatib al-baghdadiallaah's angerallaah's namesallaah's pleasureal-milal wan-nihalal-muhasibial-naruijial-nawaweeal-nawawial-qadi abd al-wahhab al-malikial-qadi abu ya'laaal-qalanisial-qurtubeeal-qurtubial-qushayrial-razial-shahrastanial-tabyinal-taftazanial-tahawial-tarkibal-uluwwal-uluwwwal-wajhal-yadan-nadhr al-istidlaalan-nawawianthropomorphismanthropomorphistsa'raad'aradaristotelian metaphysicsaristotelians anonymousaristotlear-raziarshasaas ut-taqdisashareesash'areesash'ariash'ari burnoutashari scholarsash'ari scholarsasharisash'ariteash'aritesash'ariyyahasmaaasrar rasheedasrar rashidas-sanusiatabek shukrov nasafiatheismatomismat-tabariat-tirmidheeaugustineaydinbaqillanibarelwibayaan talbees al-jahmiyyahbayjooribayjuribelief sciencebetter ash'aribi dhatihibishr al-mareesibucket theologycompetition cornercompositeday of arafahdemocritusdetoxdivisibleearly asharisearly ash'ariseesaaencompassmentfake hanbalisfakhr al-din al-razifakhr ud-din ar-razifalaasifahfalsafahfaqirfawqiyyahforty hadithgf haddadghadabgrave worshipgreek philosophershaadithhaashiyahhanbalisharfharranhellenismhishaamiyyahhizb ut-tahrirhudoothhudooth ul-ajsaamhuloolhulul al-hawadithibn abi zayd al-qayrawaniibn al-mutahhiribn asaakiribn asakiribn battahibn darbasibn fawrakibn hajribn hajr al-asqalaniibn jareer at-tabariibn jarir al-tabariibn khuzaymahibn kullaabibn kullabibn mahdi al-tabariibn seenaibn sinaibn taymiyyahibrahim osi-efaidol worshipihaatahilm al-kalaamilm al-kalamilm ul-kalamimaam adh-dhahabiimaam ahmadimaam ahmad bin hanbalimaam ash-shaafi'eeimam malikinqisaamintercessionintoxicationistidlaalistiwaaithbaatittihaadityaanjahm bin safwaanjahm bin safwanjahmee baleedjahmeespeakjahmi baleedjahmitejahmite ash'arisjahmitesjahmiyyahjahmiyyah mu'tazilahjawharjawharahjawharat ut-tawhidjihahjismjismiyyahkalaamkalaam nafseekalaam nafsikalam atomismkalam nafsikarraamiyyahkhabar ul-waahidkullaabi ash'ariskullaabiyyahkullabi asharislafdhiyyahlater ash'arisliquormarifahmetaphysicsmicro madrasamuhammad abduhmuhammad anwar shah al-kashmirimuhammad fahmimuhammad sa'eed ramadan al-butimuhdathmujassimahmurakkabmushabbihahmutafalsifahmutakallimoonmu'tazilahnadhrnaqd al-tadmuriyyahnaruijinaseehah dhahabiyyahneo-hanbalisneo-platonismnihaayat ul-iqdaamnizar hammadinuh ha mim kellernuh kellernur uz zamaan institutenuzoolpersonal developmentphiladelphian jahmite ash'arisphiladelphian jahmitesphilophilosophersplatopseudo-hanbalisqadi abdul-jabbarquraanquranqu'ranqur'anqur'an creationistsridhaariyadh al-saaliheenrizqullah al-tamimisaalimiyyahsabeanssaeed foudahsaeed foudah sa'id foudahsaint worshipsalafiyyahsawtsayyid qutbseeking ilmself awarenessself helpshafaa'ahshahrastaanishahrastanisifaatsifaat dhaatiyyahsifaat fi'liyyahsifat fi'liyyahsifat khabariyyahsubstancesumaniyyahtabyin kadhib al-muftaritafweedtaj al-din al-subkitajseemtajsimtakaafu' al-adillahtakyeeftamtheeltaqi ad-din an-nabahanitaqiuddin al-nabhanitarkeebtashbeehta'teelta'weeltawhidtawhid al-ibaadahtawhid al-ibadahtawhid al-uloohiyyahtawhid al-uluhiyyahta'wilthe clinicthe quranthe thronetheologiansthomas aquinasthronetop tipsuluwwundercover ash'arisvoicewahhabiwahhabisyahyaa bin ammaaryusuf al-qaradawiyusuf an-nabahani
Copyright © 2019 . All rights reserved. RSSTagsPrivacyLegal and Terms of UseSitemap