|Sunday, 10 December 2023|
Never see Ash'ariyyah in the same light, ever again! Aristotle of Stageira, Philo of Alexandria, Augustine of Hippo, the Sabeans of Harraan, the Mu'tazilites of Basrah and Baghdad and the Jahmite Ash'ari Heretics of Today Claiming Orthodoxy. Read the first article, the second article, the third article, the fourth article, the fifth article.
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All praise is due to Allaah and may the prayers and salutations be upon His Messenger, to proceed.
Bayaan Talbees al-Ash'ariyyah [al-Kullaabiyyah al-Jahmiyyah]
In previous articles we explained how the Jahmite Ash'aris believe in secret that the Qur'an we recite and memorize is created (but they forbid that this should be said openly). Then there was the saying of Fakhr ud-Din ar-Razi (d. 606H) that the As'haris and Mu'tazilah are actually agreed that the Qur'an we have is created, but they just differ on issues of wording and terminology (see here). Then there is the saying of the contemporary Ash'ari, Muhammad Sa'eed Ramadan al-Buti - and we brought his saying establishing the same (see this article). We also brought a quote from the Mufassir, Ibn Jareer at-Tabari (d. 310) in which he cleaned out the rat-holes and secret hideouts of the Jahmites in a single sweep, cursing them, reviling them and making takfeer of them on account of their claiming the Qur'an (that we read, recite, memorize and hear) is created - and may Allaah have mercy upon him.
So today, we are going to add to all of the above with a corroboration of it from another prominent Ash'ari from the past and he is Imaam ul-Haramayn, Abu al-Mu'aali Abdul-Malik al-Juwaynee (d. 478H).
The Statement of Abdul-Malik al-Juwaynee
In his book, "Kitaab ul-Irshaad", (1950 edition, Maktabat ul-Khaanjee, Egypt) there occurs, after a discussion of the issues connected to the Speech of Allaah, the words of al-Juwaynee (pp 116-117):
This translates as:
Know after it [the preceding discussion regarding what is "Kalaam" and "mutakallim"] that [our] speech with the Mu'tazilah and all the opposers in this issue is connected to negation and affirmation. For what they have affirmed and determined to be "kalaam (speech)", then in and of itself, it is established, affirmed. And [then] their saying [thereafter], "It is the speech of Allaah, the Most High", when it is subjected to a scientific study, the speech (Kalaam) [simply] returns back to [one of] languages and appellations.
Al-Juwaynee confirms that both the Ash'aris and the Mu'tazilah agree that this Qur'an we have, which is recited and memorized and heard - which the Salaf said is "uncreated" - is to them (the Asharis and Mu'tazilah) created. What they actually disagree on is whether Allaah can be called "Mutakallim" on account of this Qur'aan, which is "created" (to both the Ash'aris and the Mu'tazilah).
So the Mu'tazilah say yes, He can. And the Ash'aris say no He can't. The Ash'aris say He can't because you can't be said to be "mutakallim (one who speaks)" on account of the speech in another essence, and the Mu'tazilah claim you can, and they say it is like "the House of Allaah", and "the Messenger of Allaah" and "the She-Camel of Allaah" and so on. The Ash'aris don't agree with this.
The Ash'aris say (which is the view of Ibn Kullaab and his from his innovation), that Allaah can be said to be "mutakallim (one who speaks)" on account of the "kalam nafsee" that resides with His Self and which is uncreated. It is on account of this that say Allaah is "mutakallim" with "Kalaam".
So the essence of the matter is that they are all agreed that the Qur'an about which the Salaf said is uncreated, is created (makhlooq). Thereafter they differ on a linguistic matter - can one be said to be "mutakallim" on account of speech established in another entity or not? The Mu'tazilah said yes, and the Ash'aris simply borrowed the saying of Ibn Kullab that Allaah has "Kalaam Nafsee" and so they say it is on account of this that He is "mutakallim".
So let no Ash'ari or non-Ash'ari - after this and preceding articles - be under any doubt that the Ash'aris hold the Qur'an to be created, just like the Mu'tazilah and the Jahmiyyah. And it was precisely because of this specific belief that the Salaf assaulted and condemned the Jahmites and the Mu'tazilah.
It's worthy as a reminder that we bring the speech of the Salaf once more:
Cleaning up ...
We can now turn to the words of the Salaf and clean up efficiently, and we've got a great line-up which is going to make these Jahmites flee in no time. You should be clear that when the Salaf made takfeer of those who said the Qur'an is created, it was on the basis of their saying that this Qur'an that we have, which we recite, which we hear, whose words we hear, which are memorized and so on that this is created.
The saying of the Salaf is that all of that is a single Qur'an, however it is, it is the speech of Allaah, uncreated - and they did not mean the paper and the ink and the voices and so on, they meant the words, the words, no matter in what form, it is all the uncreated speech of Allaah, Allaah spoke it, it is His words, it originated with Him. So when the Qur'an is recited the Kalaam (speech, words) are those of Allaah, but the voice is that of the reciter. And in all instances that speech (Kalaam) is the speech of Allaah which He spoke to Jibreel and which Jibreel spoke to Muhammad and which Muhammad spoke to the Ummah. And this is the creed of the Salaf, manifest, plain and clear. So when you see the Salaf make takfeer of the Jahmites, it was due to their claim that the Qur'aan, as we have mentioned it, is created. And this saying was inherited by the Mu'tazilah, Kullaabiyyah and Ash'ariyyah - the disputes between them are in wording only not in the realities.
Al-Laalikaa'ee reports in his "Sharh Usool I'tiqaad Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jamaa'ah", (2/275-277):
From Ahmad bin Abdillaah bin al-Khidr al-Muqree - [chain of narration] - that Abu Muhammad Yahyaa bin Khalf al-Muqree said:
The Creed of Abu Ja'far Muhammad bin Jareer at-Tabari
So the truth, the creed of the Salaf and of their great Imaams, is manifest walhamdulillaah and the saying of the Jahmites and Mu'tazilah is laid bare in plain sight.
We ask Allaah to remove the blind-partisanship and bigotry that prevents many of the Ash'aris from freeing themselves of the shackles of the Aristotelian Metaphysics that led their predecessors to waste most of their lives in useless theological speculation, only to lament over it when their time came to an end, after they realized that no matter how much polemic they devised against the Mu'tazilah, their positions never really managed to escape or separate from the views of the Mu'tazilah except through the playing around with words, definitions and terminologies.
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