In this article we will be tracing the development of the Jahmite
doctrine of negating there is a deity above the heaven which eventually ended up being championed by the later (Jahmite
Explanatory Comments and Notes
ONE: The Righteous Salaf unanimously held that Allaah is above the Throne, with His Essence, separate and distinct from His creation, and when the Jahmiyyah claimed Allaah is everywhere and in everything, some of the Salaf such as Abdullaah bin al-Mubaarak and Imaam Ahmad said, "bi haddin", i.e. with a demarcation, to rebut the saying of the Jahmites who wished to deny Allaah is above the Throne, above His creation, separate from it, not being merged with it or contained by it. This is a matter that is firmly established, it cannot be denied nor explained away and it is manifestly clear in all that has been transmitted from them in this regard. And the sayings of the Salaf, "baa'inun min khalqihi" (separate and distinct from His creation" and "bi dhaatihi" (with His Essence) and "bi haddin" are all in the face of repugnant saying of the Jahmites who denied Allaah is above the Throne. Then some of the Scholars such as adh-Dhahabi expressed a dislike of the word "bi dhaatihi" - not because he disagreed with it's intent and meaning, but because it is an addition in wording that is not necessary - this was the opinion of adh-Dhahabi and the Jahmiyyah of our times have attempted to use this saying of adh-Dhahabi to argue in favour of the deen of the Jahmites that Allaah is not, with His Essence, above the Throne.
TWO: Jahm bin Safwan argued with the Sumaniyyah, Indian Materialist Philosophers and tried to prove to them that the universe is created and thus, has a creator through a proof that is known as "hudooth ul-ajsaam". Which demonstrates through the presence of qualities (sifaat), incidental attributes (a'raad), and events (hawaadith) that bodies (ajsaam) are created. When the Sumaniyyah accepted for argument's sake that there is a Creator, they said to Jahm he cannot be perceived by any of the senses, so he cannot exist (because they only believed in what can be perceived by the senses). So Jahm concocted his belief of Allaah being in everything and everywhere, just like a soul occupies a body, but at the same time, cannot be seen or perceived with any of the senses and nor described with any descriptions. And when they asked him to describe His Lord, he realised that if he described Allaah with what is in the Book and the Sunnah, it would invalidate His proof, since Allaah is described with attributes and actions. And this creed of Jahm is the basis of Hulool and Ittihaad on the one hand (divine indwelling and union) and ta'teel on the other (negation of Names and Attributes and Actions for Allaah). Thus, the Jahmiyyah were forced to deny that Allaah is above the heaven, above the Throne, as this would falsify the proof for His existence (it would have meant that He is a jism) - and therefore we see the statements of the Salaf in this regard, reviling and scorning the Jahmites.
To follow inshaa'Allaah.