Thursday, 20 June 2024   

Never see Ash'ariyyah in the same light, ever again! Aristotle of Stageira, Philo of Alexandria, Augustine of Hippo, the Sabeans of Harraan, the Mu'tazilites of Basrah and Baghdad and the Jahmite Ash'ari Heretics of Today Claiming Orthodoxy. Read the first article, the second article, the third article, the fourth article, the fifth article.
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The Ash'ari Creed and 20th Century Thinkers and Political Activists: Part 2h - The Aqidah of Taqi ud-Din an-Nabahani: an-Nabahani and the Bid'ah of the Qadariyyah - Third Installment
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Topics: Taqi Ad-Din An-Nabahani Hizb Ut-Tahrir Taqiuddin Al-Nabhani Yusuf An-Nabahani

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Taqi ad-Din an-Nabahani Is a Qadariyy Mutbadi' (Innovator), the Likes of Whom The Prophet ((alayhis salaam) Warned Against Severely - Third Installment

In the first installment of this article we established two things from an-Nabahani, that he does not consider the pillar of belief in "al-qadar" to be a firmly established sixth pillar of eemaan, but something that was added later on and made the sixth matter from the matters of eemaan. And secondly, he considers the disputes that took place regarding man's actions in relation to al-qadar to have nothing to do with the "qadaa" and "qadar" that is mentioned in the texts of the Book and the Sunnah.

In the second installment we covered an-Nabahani's analysis of the views on this subject, which he wrongly restricted to only two views (amongst the Muslims) - that of the Mu'tazilah Qadariyyah and that of the Jahmiyyah and Ash'ariyyah Jabariyyah.

We will continue surveying an-Nabahani's full discussion over this matter, which takes place between pages 66 and 111 of the first volume of "ash-Shakhsiyyah al-Islaamiyyah". Because it is a lengthy section, we can't provide screenshots for all the passages, so you can download the entire section in PDF form which you can use to follow along with this article:

Synopsis of an-Nabahani's Explanation of the Terms "al-Qadaa" and "al-Qadar"

From pages 79 to 83, an-Nabahani gives his understanding of what al-qadar is and he begins this section with the title "al-Qadar" and opens with the following:

The phrase "al-qadaa wal-qadar" which was used by the Mutakallimoon (Theologians) as a label referring to a concept which they took from the Greek Philosophers, it had not previously been used for this meaning, neither in the language nor in legislatively (in the Sharee'ah texts). And now, let it be made clear to what extent is the meaning of al-qadar and the meaning of al-qadaa, linguistically and legislatively, far removed from the meaning which was devised for them by the Mutakallioon. We will address their meanings as they have come in the language and in the Sharee'ah texts...

Note here that he is expelling the discussion of the issue of man's will (iraadah) and ability (qudrah) outside of (what he considers) the meanings of al-qadaa and al-qadar - so this means that when Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jamaa'ah, the Righteous Imaams of the Salaf in the first three centuries of Islaam (before the Ash'aris came onto the scene), that when they clarified the truth, and refuted both the Qadariyyah and Jabariyyah, that their discussion of this matter, and their corroboration of the truth, was also far removed from what an-Nabahani considers to be "al-qadaa wal-qadar".

The Meaning of al-Qadar

Then he proceeds over the next few pages to present the linguistic meanings of "al-qadar" as they have come in the Sharee'ah texts.

He quotes (p. 79-82) verses from the Qur'an and some ahaadeeth from which he explains that al-qadar means a firm, decisive judgment, and determination, and apportioning, and affixing. And he explains that the understanding of the Companions of the word "al-qadar" was Allaah's knowledge ("ilm") and the writing of that knowledge in the Preserved Tablet (which is what is referred to as "taqdeer").

He concludes by saying (p. 82) that "al-qadar" is from the word that carry numerous meanings such as "taqdeer" (apportioning, determining), and "ilm (knowledge) and "tadbeer" (regulation) and "waqt" (timing) and "tahiyah" (preparation), and giving everything its specific properties. After listing these he says that despite all these various multiple meanings, that in none of these texts has it come that the meaning of "al-qadar" is that man is compelled to act, or that it is the ruling that pertains to all the details and particulars of things, or that it is a secret from the secrets of Allaah and the likes.

He then says (p. 82-83):

And from this it becomes clear that these meanings which are in the verses, the intent from them is not the "qadar" in which the Mutakallimoon (theologians, i.e. the Jahmiyyah Jabariyyah, the Ash'ariyyah Jabariyyah and the Mu'tazilah Qadariyyah) differed over afterwards, and that the meanings which are in the ahaadeeth, what is intended by them is the taqdeer of Allaah and His knowledge, which refers to its writing into the Preserved Tablet. And it has no involvement in the study of "al-qadaa wal-qadar" which the Mutakallimeen introduced.

An-Nabahani then proceeds to bring some ahaadeeth from which he concludes that "al-qadar" refers to Allaah's knowledge (ilm) and taqdeer (firm decision, determination of things) and it is what is written in the Preserved Tablet.

Then he says at the end of the chapter:

And all of this is from the topic of Allaah's Attributes, and that He is Allaah, He knows of all things before their occurrence, and that they proceed upon "qadar" from Him, meaning upon knowledge (ilm). And this does not enter into the study of "al-qadaa wal-qadar" (meaning, upon what the Theologians discussed)

From all the above it is clear that "al-qadar" to an-Nabahani is restricted just to Allaah's knowledge of all things and the writing down of all things, upon Allaah's foreknowledge and firm determination of them (and what this "determination" of things means will be further qualified by an-Nabahani a little later), and here he has not included the will and ability (iraadah and qudrah) of the servant within what the term "al-qadar" covers.

The Meaning of al-Qadaa

An-Nabahani spends two pages (pp. 84-85) on the meaning of "al-qadaa" which he explains as "passing a judgment, judging and determining between two people, making something with precision, making a matter to pass by" and so on. He brings numerous verses in the Qur'an, through which he outlines the linguistic meanings and after this he concludes (p. 85):

And upon this (what has preceded), the qadaa that has come in the verses, is not the one intended in "al-qadaa wal-qadar" in which the mutakallimeen differed afterwards. And there is no involvement of these verses in the study of "al-qadaa wal-qadar", just as there is no involvement of the verses and ahaadeeth which comprise the meaning of al-qadar in the study of "al-qadaa wal-qadar". For these verses and ahaadeeth speak about the attributes of Allaah and about the actions of Allaah, [whereas] "al-qadaa wal-qadar" (i.e. of the mutakallimeen) investigate the action of the servant. And the study in these verses is legislative (shar'ee) and its meanings are linguistic whereas the study of "al-qadaa wal-qadar" with the mutakallimeen is rational (intellectual). And these verses and ahaadeeth are explained with their linguistic and shar'ee (legislative) meanings, whereas the study of "al-qadaa wal-qadar" is a usage (of a phrase) for a meaning devised by the Mutakallimoon (Theologians).

So we see hear that an-Nabahani, just like with the term "al-qadar" has expelled the meanings of "al-qadaa" outside of what relates to the actions of man, and he has limited its application and usage to linguistic meanings.

An-Nabahani on Al-Qadaa wal-Qadar

Next he has a chapter of around 11 pages on "al-Qadaa wal-Qadar" where he starts to complete his idea and conception on this subject.

An-Nabahani states (p. 86) again that the topic of "al-qadaa wal-qadar" with his term, was something stirred up after the presence of Greek philosophy amongst the Muslims, and translation of their works.

He acknowledges (p. 86) that both qadaa and qadar have been mentioned together in the hadeeth of Jaabir (mentioned in a previous article) but says that they are mentioned in this hadeeth with their linguistic meanings only and not with the meaning of what the Mutakallimoon discussed (i.e. man's actions).

Over the next two pages (pp. 87-88) he says that after the presence of Greek philosophy amongst the Muslims, the Qadariyyah arose who claimed that nothing occurs which has been predetermined, and that they said that Allaah knows the generalities or universals but does not know the particulars of things (until after they occur). He then criticises this view, and then says (p. 88) that this dispute was only concerning the word "qadar" that refers to Allaah's knowledge. He repeats again that this dispute arose regarding Allaah's knowledge, with the Qadariyyah claiming Allaah only knows the generals and the universals, not the particulars, so it was a dispute concerning Allaah's foreknowledge. He says that therefore this dispute on this topic is entirely different to the topic of "al-qadaa wal-qadar" (which pertains to man's actions).

He then says (p. 88) that in light of the above, the two separate words "al-qadaa" and "al-qadar" which he has already explained with their purely linguistic meanings, have no connection at all, neither individually or both together, with the subject of "al-qadaa wal-qadar" (that became subject of dispute in relation to man's actions). He said p. 88):

And from this it becomes clear that the two words "al-qadaa wal-qadar" have both been reported on their own, and each of them have a specific meaning, and there is no connection between them (both) and the study of "al-qadaa wal-qadar". Meaning, that the word "qadaa" with all its meanings, linguistic and legislative, which have come from the legislator, and the word "qadar" with all its meanings, linguistic and legislative, which have come from the legislator, there is no connection between either of these two words, neither on their own, or together, with the study of "al-qadaa wal-qadar". Rather, they (these two words) are to be restricted to the meaning that has come for either of them in terms of the language and the legislation.

Over the next three pages (pp. 88-90), and this is a crucial passage in understanding an-Nabahani's creed on this matter and his conception of it, he brings verses from the Qur'an relating to Allaah's all-encompassing knowledge, and after such verses he makes certain remarks. Here is the passage, for the record:

Basically, what he is saying here is that these verse pertain to Allaah's knowledge (and this is what is "al-qadar" to an-Nabahani), and when they were revealed the Companions memorized them and understood them and the topic of "al-qadaa wal-qadar" (i.e. as it relates to man's actions) never occurred to them. And that in addition to this, these verses in their meaning, understanding and indication are an explanation of Allaah's knowledge (ilm), and they have no connection to the topic of "al-qadaa wal-qadar".

He brings a verse in which Allaah affirms that all of what comes to the disbelievers, good or evil, is from Allaah - and an-Nabahani is quick to point out that:

And the speech is not about the good and the evil that a man performs himself directly, rather the speech (in this verse) is in relation to fighting and death...

And then he provides the surrounding verses to provide the wider context, and then remarks at the end:

So the topic is what afflicts them [i.e what is beyond their control] not what they [themselves] do [of their own actions]. And for this reason, this (i.e. this matter in this verse) does not enter into the study of al-qadaa wal-qadar (i.e. that of man's actions, first raised by the mutakallimeen, according to an-Nabahani)

You need to pay careful attention here, because an-Nabahani makes a distinction between the actions that a man does himself directly, over which he has iraadah and qudrah (will and power) and between those things that happen to him without his will and power. So he is saying that even this particular verse in which Allaah says to the disbelievers, that all of what comes to you, good or evil, is from Allaah, then an-Nabahani distinguishes here between what comes to them of evil through things outside their will or power (such as harm, death), and between what they perform of their own actions.

This is important to understand because it is here we start seeing that an-Nabahani is outlining the Qadaree belief which expels man's actions, outside of al-qadaa wal-qadar, and he will confirm it as we go along.

After the next few paragraphs (p. 90-91), after repeating much of what he has said previously, he goes on to explain the necessity of now looking at this particular topic of "al-qadaa wal-qadar", meaning that which the Mutakallimoon (Theologians) engaged in, and in which he considers to be not connected to the meanings of "al-qadaa" and "al-qadar" that he has explained, which he considers to be Allaah's knowledge and the writing of that knowledge.

In other words he is going to express his own opinion and evaluation of what the Theologians discussed and debated regarding "al-qadaa wal-qadar" and his previous chapters on "al-qadaa" and "al-qadar" were laying the foundations for this evaluation and the presentation of what he deems to be the truth.

He defines (p. 91) the subject matter which is "the actions of the servants" and "the specific properties of things", as it relates to the results of man's actions on things, such as a man's action of cutting something on that thing, or a man's action of striking another and the pain produced. The issue is that is man creating his own action when he performs it and likewise the properties or characteristics arising in things as a result of man's action, are they too from his creation or not? This he explains is what the Theologians discussed under "al-qadaa wal-qadar". Then he proceeds to outline three views, that of the Mu'tazilah Qadariyyah, and then that of the Jahmiyyah Jabariyyah and the Ash'ariyyah Jabariyyah, which he as already stated before that they are essentially the same and the Ash'ariyyah failed miserably in trying to differentiate their view from that of the Jabariyyah.

In the paragraph starting on page 92, an-Nabahani now begins to outline his conception of the matter and he says that essentially the topic of al-qadaa wal-qadar (according to him) all revolves around the reward and punishment given to the servant and it is not a) the action of the servant, and whether he creates it or Allaah, and b) it is not the will of Allaah in that His will is associated with the action of the servant such that it is necessarily existent through this will and c) it is not the knowledge of Allaah in that the He knows that the servant will do such adn such and His knowledge encompasses it and d) it is not that this action of the servant is written in the Preserved Tablet such that he will inevitably perform it in accordance with what has been written. He then says:

Yes, the foundation upon which this study is based is not upon these things, absolutely, because they have no connection to this topic from the angle of reward and punishment. Rather, the connection (of these matters) is with regard to bringing into existence from non-existence, and in regard to the will that is associated with all the possible things, and with regard to the knowledge that encompasses all things, and the Preserved Tablet comprising of everything. And this connection is a different topic, separate from the topic of rewarding and punishment for an action. And the subject of the investigation which the issue of al-qadaa wal-qadar is built upon, is the subject of the reward for an action and punishment for it. Meaning, is a servant bound (forced) to perform an action, good or evil, or does he have a choice regarding it? And does he have the choice to perform the action or abandon it, or does he not have choice?

To provide the answer to this question, an-Nabahani then classifies (p. 92-93) the various domains in which a man lives into:

  • A domain in which he has the sphere of influence, and in which his actions take place purely through his choice (ikhtiyaar).

  • A domain in whose sphere he falls into and in which actions take place without him having any influence on them, regardless of whether they occurred from him or upon him.

He then further classifies (pp. 93-94) the second into:

  • A first type which the order of the universe necessitates directly - and these actions occur without his will (iraadah), and he is forced to go along with them, since this is an order that never fails to continue (as it is). For example, he came into this life without his own will, and he will depart from it without his own will, and he is not able to fly with his body, and nor walk on water, and he cannot create the color of his own eyes, and nor the shape of his head, and nor the size of his body. The one who brought all of that into existence is Allaah, the Most High, without the created servant having any influence, effect or connection to any of that, since Allaah is the one who created the order of things in the universe.

  • A second type which the order of the universe does not necessitate directly and which the servant has no ability to repel, these are the actions that occur from a man or to him, upon compulsion, which he cannot repel. Such as if one man was to fall on top of another after falling off a wall, and thus killed him, or if a man shot at a bird, but hit another person and killed him without knowing, or when a car or airplane crashes, due to an unexpected error which the pilot was not able to solve, and thus all the passengers are killed, and so on. So all of these are actions which occur from a man or to him, but which are not from the universal order of things, and which at the same time are not within his capacity or control.

He says (p. 94) that all of these things which are things that happen to man, outside of his control, these are collectively called "al-qadaa", because Allaah is the one who ordained (qadaa) the actions (within this domain, sphere) - pay attention to this, as this is crucial to understanding what an-Nabahani is outlining here. He continues to say that Allah will not call a servant to account for these types of actions, because has no influence over them, and thus he is neither rewarded nor punished for them - and regarding all of these things, which make up what he considers to be "al-qadaa", he says that this is "al-qadaa" that a man must have faith in, that it is from Allaah, the Most High.

Then he goes back to discuss the domain in which man has the sphere of influence and chooses his actions:

As for the actions which occur in the domain in which man has control, then these are (in) the domain in which he proceeds out of his choice (mukhtaaran) within the order (of things) that he chooses, regardless of whether it is the Sharee'ah of Allaah or other than it. And it is in this domain that the actions arise from a person or upon a person out of his will (iraadah). Thus, he walks, eats, drinks, travels at any time he wants, and he withholds from that at any time he wills. He satisfies the hunger (in its) type(s), the hunger of possession, the hunger of the stomach, as he wills. He performs actions out of his choice (ikhtiyaar) and he withholds from an action out of his choice (ikhtiyaar). For this reason, he will be asked about the actions that he performs within this sphere, and so he will be rewarded for the action if it is from what is deserving of reward, and he will be punished for it, if it is deserving of punishment. And these affairs do not enter into "al-qadaa", and nor does "al-qadaa" enter into them, because it is man who is the one who performed them with his will (iraadah), and his choice (ikhtiyaar), and upon this, then verily the chosen actions (al-af'aal al-ikhtiyaariyyah) do not enter under "al-qadaa".

After defining what comes under "qadaa" an-Nabahani states here that man's chosen actions (al-af'aal al-ikhtiyaariyyah) have nothing to do with this "qadaa" - and "al-qadaa" to an-Nabahani is the order of the universe which is fixed and which man has no influence in (when he is born, what color eyes, height etc.), or those things that happen from a man or to him, without his will or choice, even if they are things that are not from the fixed order of the universe (accidental harm, killing etc.).

Then he begins to discuss "al-qadar".

Over the next two pages (pp. 95-96) an-Nabahani explains (in his view) what "al-qadar" is. He states that it refers to the actions occuring from things or to things which are of the substance of the universe, or man, or life, and these actions lead to effects, in other words they lead to the existence of some other matter. So the question is that when man's actions lead to such things arising, is man the one who created that property in that thing, or did Allaah create this result as a specific property of that thing, just like He created that thing itself?

An-Nabahani explains that these affairs that arise in things are from the special properties of these things, and are not from the result or the creation by man's action. The proof for this is that man cannot bring about these results except in the things which have those particular properties, as for things which are not from their properties, then he cannot bring them about. He gives examples of what he means here, where a man cannot plant a seed for an apple tree and expect to get dates, or like (Allaah have decreed) that the sperm of a man will only produce a man, and not any other mammal. So Allaah has created unique and specific properties for all things, fire burns (other things), word burns, a knife cuts, and these things are binding and necessary, unless Allaah Himself alters this order of things. Similarly, Allaah placed in man, instincts and bodily needs, and he made specific properties for these things too, just like he made specific properties for other things. So he put in him the insticts of hunger, seeking of material things (for survival) and so on. So Allaah has made these things binding in humans as part of the order of things.

Then (p. 96) an-Nabahani says, after outlining the above that all these things are what enter into "al-qadar" - the unique and specific properties of everything in the creation - such as when you throw a stone up it goes up and when you throw it down it goes down, and the desires that a man feels, or the fact that he sees when his eyelid is raised - all of this is not from the action of man, rather it is from the action of Allaah, in the sense that he made this the nature of all things that they should be such and such, and that they should have specific properties.

He then says, in closing his speech on "al-qadar":

And these are not from the servant, and he has no involvement in them, and nor any influence absolutely. So this is "al-qadar". And it is said, thereby, that "al-qadar" as it relates to the study of "al-qadaa wal-qadar", refers to the specific properties of things that a man brings about in them (through his action) [with Allaah's having made these things behave in this manner as part of the universal order of things]. And it is upon man to believe that the one who decreed (determined) in these things their specific properties is Allaah, the Sublime and Exalted.

Thus, what "al-qadaa" and "al-qadar" refer to have been clearly explained by an-Nabahani, and then in closing this section he says, and it is here that an-Nabahani explicitly espouses the evil bid'ah of the Qadariyyah:

And thus, "al-qadaa wal-qadar" refers to the actions which take place in the domain that are compelled upon man, irrespective of whether the universal order (of things) in existence necessitates them or does not, rather (these actions) occur from or to man, being forced upon him. And likewise, the special properties he brings about in thinigs ...

Here an-Nabahani has summarized what "al-qadaa wal-qadar" really means and it is three things:

  • Things like when a person is born, his hair color, height and so on in which he has no control, and things like gravity, and seeing when the eyelids are open and so on. These are from the universal order of things.
  • Things like accidents, and harms and occurrencs which occur from man or to man but which are outside of his influence. These first two are "al-qadaa".
  • The effect of man's actions on things in bringing about certain properties in things, such as burning something, or cutting something, or throwing something which falls to the ground eventually and so on. Allaah has placed these specific properties in all things, and thus, man's actions do not create these properties, rather they are from Allaah's creation. And thus Allaah's determination of all things in their properties is "al-qadar" (according to an-Nabahani.

Then he continues:

And the meaning of "al-qadaa wal-qadar", their good and their evil, is from Allaah, the Most High, and it is faith (eemaan) that the actions which occur from man or to him, being forced upon him, that he has no way of repelling, and (likewise) the specific properties of things which he brings about in things, they are from Allaah the Most High and not from the servant, and the servant has no involvement in them.

And from that, the wilfully chosen actions (al-af'aal al-ikhtiyaariyyah) exit from the study of "al-qadaa wal-qadar", and that is because these actions occur from man or to him, from his choice (ikhtiyaar)...

So here an-Nabahani has removed man's chosen actions outside of the domain of "al-qadaa wal-qadar" and thus he has reverted to the aqidah of the Mu'tazilah Qadariyyah that man creates his own actions, and thus he has affirmed another creator alongside Allaah, falling under the saying of the Prophet (alayhis salaam), "The Qadariyyah are the Magians of this Ummah".

He continues, giving the reason for that, which is the very same reason as the Mu'tazilah Qadariyyah and which centers around "al-adl" (justice) in the sense that because man has independence (in either his will and qudrah alone, or his qudrah alone) outside of "al-qadaa wal-qadar", that punishment and reward therefore is totally justified:

For this reason, He made reward for him (man) for doing good because his intellect chose the performance of the commands of Allaah and avoidance of his prohibitions. And He made punishment for performing evil, because his intellect chose opposition to the commands of Allaah and doing what He prohibited from, and [thus] his recompense for this action is truth (haqq) and justice (adl), because he is wilfully chose in doing this, and was not compelled - and there is no involvement of "al-qadaa wal-qadar" in this, rather the issue is man's performance of his action, out of wilful choice.

So the thought is complete and we have detailed all of this in length so as not to let anyone claim that an-Nabahani's words or conception of this matter has been distorted or twisted. Rather, his doctrine is the essence of the Qadarite doctrine - and is strange and amazing to see a man who is of Ash'ari / Maturidi background to wander into the dens of the Mu'tazilah. The most likely reason for this is that an-Nabahani trashed (as we saw in the previous article) the Ash'arite attempt to refute the Mu'tazilah. The Ash'arites position in reality was in agreement with that of the Jabariyyah despite their attempts to to conceal it cleverly by plays with terms and definitions. As this did not satisfy an-Nabahani, he wandered into the snares of the Mu'tazilah. We should not forget that an-Nabahani considers all the different and contradictory viewpoints of these groups, the Jahmiyyah, Qadariyyah, Mu'tazilah, Ash'ariyyah to be from the Islamic aqidah - and thus it is not surprising that he arrives at the view of the Mu'tazilah.

Guidance and Misguidance

If the above was not enough, then an-Nabahani leaves absolutely no doubt whatsoever in the next chapter when continuing to outline his conception. The next chapter which runs from pages 98 to 103 is about guidance and misguidance.

He starts the chapter:

And Allah has made Paradise for the guided and Hellfire for the misguided, meaning Allaah rewards the guided and punishes the misguided, thus reward and punishment being attached to guidance and misguidance indicate that guidance and misguidance are from the action of man and are not from Allaah. Since, if they were from Allaah, he would not have rewarded guidance and punished misguidance, since that would lead to the ascription of oppression to Allaah, the Exalted, since when He punishes the one whom He misguided, He would have oppressed him, and exalted is Allaah from that with a lofty exaltation.

Then over the next two pages an-Nabahani explains that the verses in which Allaah says that He guides and misguides only refer to Allaah creating the initial capacity (qaabiliyyah) of guidance and misguidance in man, and that it is man who performs guidance or misguidance and that the proof for this (particular understanding of an-Nabahani in his distortion and twisting of these verses) is the other verses which ascribe guidance and misguidance to man (see page 101).

Whilst it is true that man is the actual performer, in his actions, of guidance and misguidance, what an-Nabahani means here is that man's actions of guidance and misguidance are outside of the domain of "al-qadaa wal-qadar" which he explained in the previous chapter, since acts of guidance or misguidance are from the genus of man's wilful chosen actions, which according to an-Nabahani have no connection to "al-qadaa wal-"qadar".

He says (p. 99):

However this expression has come with other indicators that take it away from its (apparent) meaning in making direct (mubaasharah) guidance and misguidance from Allaah to another meaning, which is creating (the capacity) for guidance and creating (the capacity) of misguidance from Allaah, and that the one who directly (falls into) guidance or misguidance, or misguiding is the servant. As for these indicators, then they are legislative and rational...

Note the use of "mubaasharah" and "mubaashir" in this passage referring to the direct agency (in performing), and in the next chapter after this one, which relates to the absolute cause of death (the end of one's lifespan), an-Nabahani uses this word (al-mubaashir) to single out Allaah as the sole, direct immediate cause of death (see page 104).

Thus, whilst Allaah only creates the capacity (for guidance and misguidance), it is man, according to an-Nabahani, who guides himself, is misguided or misguides others - through his own willfully chosen actions which are outside the domain of "al-qadaa wal-qadar" as has preceded.

As for the rational evidence, then an-Nabahani explains this on page 101, that if guiding and misguiding was attributed to Allaah directly, then his punishment of the disbeliever, hypocrite and sinner would be injustice and oppression. This is the same argument of the Mu'tazilah to argue the case that man create's his own actions, outside Allaah's domain of control.


An-Nabahani is a Qadariyy Mubtadi' who affirms another creator alongside Allaah, which is man creating his own actions outside of the domain of "al-qadaa wal-qadar". Ibn Umar narrates that the Prophet (alayhis salaam) said:

القدرية مجوس هذه الأمة إن مرضوا فلا تعودوهم و إن ماتوا فلا تشهدوهم

The Qadariyyah are Magians of this Ummah. If they fall ill do not visit them, and if they die, do not prayer over them.

This hadeeth was reported by al-Haakim, who declared it authentic (Saheeh) upon the conditions of al-Bukhari and Muslim, upon the assumption that Abu Haazim (one of its narrators) heard from Ibn Umar. Abu Dawud, and at-Tirmidhi also declared it to be Hasan, as did Ibn Hajr, and also Imaam al-Albani in Saheeh al-Jaami' (no. 4442). And in general, the censure of the Qadariyyah is very severe in the words of righteous Salaf and Imaams of the Ummah.

With this being established, alongside an-Nabahani also affirming the saying of the Ash'arites that the Qur'an we have in our presence is a created expression (the saying of the Jahmiyyah which is tantamount to kufr), and affirming the generality of the creed of the Ash'ariyyah regarding the Attributes, and limiting faith in Allaah to pretty much affirming His existence and some of His attributes, then it is little surprise that he, like his co-Ash'arites contemporary to him (i.e. Qutb) simply borrowed the methodologies from Western secular philosophies (Ba'thism, Communism) and moulded them with Islam, in order to mobilize the Muslims towards revolutions in order to establish "social justice".

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