|Sunday, 29 January 2023|
Never see Ash'ariyyah in the same light, ever again! Aristotle of Stageira, Philo of Alexandria, Augustine of Hippo, the Sabeans of Harraan, the Mu'tazilites of Basrah and Baghdad and the Jahmite Ash'ari Heretics of Today Claiming Orthodoxy. Read the first article, the second article, the third article, the fourth article, the fifth article.
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Taqi ad-Din an-Nabahani Is a Qadariyy Mutbadi' (Innovator), the Likes of Whom The Prophet ((alayhis salaam) Warned Against Severely - Second Installment
In the first installment of this article we established two things from an-Nabahani, that he does not consider the pillar of belief in "al-qadar" to be a firmly established sixth pillar of eemaan, but something that was added later on and made the sixth matter from the matters of eemaan. And secondly, he considers the disputes that took place regarding man's actions in relation to al-qadar to have nothing to do with the "qadaa" and "qadar" that is mentioned in the texts of the Book and the Sunnah.
In this article, we will now survey an-Nabahani's full discussion over this matter, which takes place between pages 66 and 111 of the first volume of "ash-Shakhsiyyah al-Islaamiyyah". Because it is a lengthy section, we can't provide screenshots for all the passages, so you can download the entire section in PDF form which you can use to follow along with this article:
Synopsis of an-Nabahani's Coverage of the Issue of al-Qadaa wal-Qadar
From pages 66-78 an-Nabahani, under the chapter heading, "How Did the Issue of al-Qadaa wal-Qadar Arise", discusses this subject mentions the following:
That the issue of whether man is free (has free will) is an issue taken from the Greek Philosophers, and it was brought amongst the Muslims by the Mu'tazilah. This subject was known as "Determinism" and "Free Will", and it was given the label of "al-Qadaa wal-Qadar" when its discussion was entered amongst the Muslims.
After this he moves on to cover those who opposed the Mu'tazilah and began to refute them, and from them are the Jabariyyah:
He mentions (p. 70) that a group called the Jabariyyah, the most famous of whom was Jahm bin Safwaan began to refute the Qadariyyah (Mu'tazilah), and then he outlines their view that man is compelled and that he has no independent will (iraadah) or power (qudrah), and that he is just like a feather or reed blown by the wind, and that it is Allaah that creates his actions.
Then he outlines the view of those whom he calls "Ahl us-Sunnah" and he means here the Ash'ariyyah:
He outlines (pp. 71-73) the refutation of the Ash'ariyyah againt the Qadariyyah (Mu'tazilah) documenting their view, that is built upon their particular usool as it relates to their particular understanding of the sifaat (which are opposed to the usool of Salaf).
Thus far, an-Nabahani has documented the views of three factions, the Mu'tazilah (Qadariyyah), the Jabariyyah and the Ash'ariyyah whom he refers to as "Ahl us-Sunnah" as he is upon their way in general.
He then says (p.73) that all of them made the subject of investigation to be the actions of man and whatever results from his actions, meaning the specific properties or characteristics, which a man brings about through his actions upon things.
He then concludes this chapter with the following:
And from that it becomes clear that "al-qadaa wal-qadar" - upon considering them both to be single noun referring to a single meaning, or, upon their definition, considering them to be two mutually binding affairs - they were not found in the studies of the Muslims except after the presence of the Mutakallimeen (speculative theologians).
Before we continue, there are a number of observations upon the above statement of an-Nabahani:
ONE: Al-Awzaa'ee (d. 157H) said: "The first one who spoke about al-Qadar was a man from the people of Iraq called "Sawsan" - he was a Christian who became a Muslim and returned to Christianity. Then Ma'bad al-Juhanee took it from him and Gheelaan took it from Ma'bad." (al-Laalikaa'ee no. 1398). Ma'bad al-Juhanee died in the year 80H, and the bid'ah of al-Qadar arose in after the second half of the first century. And thus, the issue of al-Qadar arose before the Mutakallimeen were present, in opposition to what an-Nabahani claims.
TWO: His claim that there were only two views (that of the Qadariyyah and that of the Jabariyyah) on the issue of al-Qadar is baatil (false), rather there were three views: That of the followers of the Companions, of the Taabi'een, the Righteous Salaf who guided them manifestly by the Book and the Sunnah, then that of the Mu'tazilah Qadariyyah (independent free will), then that of the Jahmiyyah and Ash'ariyyah Jabariyyah (complete determinism). We have seen elsewhere, an-Nabahani considers the differences between the Jahmiyyah (Jabariyyah), Mu'tazilah (Qadariyyah) and the Ash'aris with whom he affiliates to be all from the "Islamic aqidah" without them having deviated from it despite their divergent and mutually contradictory views (see here) - and here, on the issue of al-qadar, he says that they turned away from the Qur'an and the Hadeeth and what the Companions understood - but what he means is his particular deviant understanding (of what he thinks the Book and the Sunnah and the sayings of the Companions indicate), not the actual understanding of the Book, the Sunnah and the Companions - as will become clear - for an-Nabahani corroborates the bid'ah of the Qadariyyah.
THREE: He again says that this discussion of a man's will and ability (iraadah and qudrah) was simply added as a sixth matter of the matters of faith (aqidah) after the Mutakallimeen began to dispute about it and gave it the label of "al-qadaa wal-qadar" and was then considered a sixth matter of aqidah - and this is false and an error, rather it was a sixth pillar of eemaan by textual affirmation from the Messenger (alayhis salaam) as occurs in the hadeeth of Jibreel, but an-Nabahani, like the Mu'tazilah and Ash'ariyyah he is following, denies the khabar ul-waahid in aqidah, and thus the hadeeth of Jibreel is not a proof for him. Further, the Prophet (alayhis salaam) said in a hadeeth which is Hasan, that the Qadariyyah are the Magians of this Ummah. This indicates that the Qadariyyah consider man to be a creator of his own evil actions, and thus, we have a textual evidence to refute the allegation of an-Nabahani who claims that making the topic of "al-qadaa wal-qadar" based around man's will (iraadah) and his ability (qudrah) was a newly-invented matter that arose after the first century of Islaam by the Mutakallimeen.
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