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Never see Ash'ariyyah in the same light, ever again! Aristotle of Stageira, Philo of Alexandria, Augustine of Hippo, the Sabeans of Harraan, the Mu'tazilites of Basrah and Baghdad and the Jahmite Ash'ari Heretics of Today Claiming Orthodoxy. Read the first article, the second article, the third article, the fourth article, the fifth article.
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The Ash'ari Creed and 20th Century Thinkers and Political Activists: Part 1 - The Aqidah of Sayyid Qutb
Posted by Abu.Iyaad, in Articles
Topics: Sayyid Qutb Ash'ari Ash'arite

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From the contradictions and intellectual frauds of the contemporary Jahmiyyah posing as "Ash'aris" is their inclusion of Scholars into lists of so-called "Asha'ris" merely because of their agreement with the Ash'aris in specific aspects of creed, even if those Scholars have absolutely nothing to do with the underlying fundamental usool with which the [Jahmite]-Ash'ari creed is built. We have exposed this fraud with a bit more elaboration in this article:

Their intellectual fraud is highlighted by the fact that they will disown and not include 20th century political activists within their so-called "lists" of Ash'ari Scholars, even though these individuals were affirming and expounding the doctrines or underlying usool of the Jahmite Ash'aris that the likes of Ibn Hajar (falsely claimed to be an Ash'ari) refuted, or did not expound such as the first obligation being nadhr and istidlaal and rejecting aahaad hadeeth in aqidah, amongst others. These 20th century political activists are more worthy of being included in these lists than many of the Scholars included by the Jahmite Ash'aris in these spurious lists. But we are in the 21st century where politics and numbers is the name of the game.

In this series we will highlight the Ash'arite aqidah of these 20th century political activists who have been spuriously attributed to Salafiyyah and to whom Salafiyyah has been spuriously attributed. Rather, these people are hardcore Jahmiyyah Ash'ariyyah who propounded and called to the underlying usool of this particular creed.

The Qur'an Is Manufactured, Made

Sayyid Qutb, in numerous places in his book expounds the doctrines of the Jahmiyyah of negating Allaah's uluww, negating the attribute of al-istiwaa, and expressing negations of the Sifaat Fi'liyyah upon Jahmi-Mu'tazili-Kullaabi principles. In this respect he considers the Arabic Qur'an to be created and this is known through direct statements as well as what is cited from him further below.

Sayyid Qutb wrote of the Qur'an (in al-Zilal 5/2719):

ولكنهم لا يملكون أن يؤلفوا منها مثل هذا الكتاب؛ لأنه من صنع الله، لا من صنع الإنسان

However, they are not able to author the likes of this book because it is from the manufacturing of Allah, not from the manufacturing of mankind.

And he says (al-Zilal 4/2249):

فهذا القرآن ليس ألفاظاً وعبارات يحاول الإنس والجن أن يحاكوها، إنما هو كسائر مايبدعه الله يعجز المخلوقون أن يصفوه

This Qur'an is not words and expressions which Men and Jinn can try to copy, imitate. Rather, it just like everything else which Allaah originates, the creatures are unable to describe it...

And he says (al-Zilal 5/3006) regarding the letter Saad, in Surah Saad:

هذا الحرف - (صاد) - يقسم به الله سبحانه كما يقسم بالقرآن ذي الذكر، وهذا الحرف من صنعة الله تعالى، فهو موجده صوتاً في حناجر البشر، وموجده حرفاً من حروف الهجاء التي يتألف من جنسها التعبير القرآني

This word (saad), Allaah, the Sublime, swears by it, just as He swears by the Qur'an full of remembrance, and this word (saad) is from teh manufacture of Allaah, the Exalted, for He is the one who originated it in terms of Voice in the larynx of men, and He is the one who originated it as a letter amongst the letters of the alphabet, from whose like the Qur'anic expression is composed of.

These are some of the statements which indicate that Qutb considers the Arabic Qur'an to be a created manifestation. However, what the Ash'aris refer to as al-kalam al-nafsi, Qutb treats it as iraadah (wish).

The Qur'an, al-istiwaa and Sifaat Fi'liyyah

Sayyid Qutb wrote in his commentary at the beginning of Surah Taha (20:5):

The one who sent down this Qur'an is the one who created the heavens and the Earth, the lofty heavens. The Qur'an is a created manifestation just like the Earth and heavens. It descended from the highest assembly, and he tied the sequence [of mention] between the Angels that judge (regulate) the universe with [those] that descend with the Qur'an, just like He placed [the mention of] the shade of the lofty heavens alongside the earth, and the [mention of the] shade of the Qur'an which descends from the highest assembly to the earth.

And the one who sent down the Qur'an from the highest assembly and created the lofty heavens, is "ar-Rahmaan". He did not send it upon His servant to cause him distress, and the attribute of "ar-Rahmaan" (i.e. rahmah) is the one that is prominent here to give familiarity to this meaning. And he is al-Muhaymin (the Guardian, Preserver) over all of the creation. "Istawaa 'ala al-arsh", and "al-Istiwaa upon the arsh" is an allusion (indirect expression) of the extremity of authority and superiority (in rank, al-isti'laa). The affair of the people, therefore, returns to Him, and all the Messenger (is obliged with) is to give reminder to the one who fears.

And alongside this supremacy, superiority, dominion and encompassment, "to Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and the Earth, what is between them and what is beneath the soil"...

And Sayyid Qutb wrote at the beginning of Surah as-Sajdah (32:4):

And al-istiwaa over the Arsh is a symbolic allusion for his superiority [in status] over all of the creation. As for the Arsh itself, then there is no way to saying anything about it, and it is necessary to halt at [the mention] of its word. But al-istiwaa is not like that. And what is apparent is that it is an allusion for superiority [in status]. And the word "thummah" (then) it is absolutely not possible that it denotes order (tarteeb) in time, because Allaah, the Sublime, the circumstances do not change for Him, and He does not be in any "circumstance" or "position (wad')" and then be in a subsequent "circumstance" or "position (wad')". This is only a conceptual order. And al-isti'laa (superiority in status) is a rank above that of creation, which is expressed through this expression (i.e istawaa 'ala al-arsh). And in the shades of this absolute superiority their hearts are touched by the reality that touches them, "You do not have besides Him, any protecter or intercessor".

From these quotes the following points can be made:

Point 1: The Belief Of The Creation of the Qur'an

Sayyid Qutb has expressed the creed of the Jahmiyyah, Mu'tazilah, Kullaabiyyah, Ash'ariyya, Maturidiyyah, that the Qur'an we have with us, the revealed Qur'an that consists of letters and words, is created, just like the heavens and earth, when he said (in commenting upon Surah Taha):

The Qur'an is a created manifestation (dhaahirah kawniyyah) just like the Earth and heavens

So, here Qutb has clearly expressed the standard Jahmite Ash'ari doctrine of the Qur'an being created, but in an expression that is very explicit.

Point 2: The ta'weel of al-istiwaa with the ta'weel of the Jahmiyyah Ash'ariyyah

The saying of Qutb (in commenting upon Surah Taha):

"Istawaa 'ala al-arsh", and "al-Istiwaa upon the arsh" is an allusion (indirect expression) of the extremity of authority and superiority (in rank, al-isti'laa).

The saying of Qutb (in commenting upon Surah as-Sajdah):

And al-istiwaa over the Arsh is a symbolic allusion for his superiority [in status] over all of the creation.

And also:

As for the Arsh itself, then there is no way to saying anything about it, and it is necessary to halt at [the mention] of its word. But al-istiwaa is not like that. And what is apparent is that it is an allusion for superiority [in status].

And also:

And al-isti'laa (superiority in status) is a rank above that of creation, which is expressed through this expression (i.e istawaa 'ala al-arsh)

This is the way and path of the Jahmiyyah and whoever followed them in rejecting the uluww of Allaah, the Most High, and as they could not reject the verses in the Qur'an they made ta'weel of them to reject those meanings that the Salaf clearly and upon consensus (ijmaa), affirmed. So the Jahmiyyah and those who took their usool on this subject, explain the texts that mention Allaah's uluww to be restricted to the meanings of loftiness in rank, status, i.e. conceptual meanings and not that Allaah Himself is above the Throne, above His creation.

Point 3: Rejection of the sifaat Fi'liyyah

Qutb said (in commenting upon Surah as-Sajdah):

And the word "thummah" (then) it is absolutely not possible that it denotes order (tarteeb) in time, because Allaah, the Sublime, the circumstances do not change for Him, and He does not be in any "circumstance" or "position (wad')" and then be in a subsequent "circumstance" or "position(wad')". This is only an conceptual order.

This is the shubhah of the Jahmiyyah and whoever followed their usool of "hulool al-hawaadith" which is negating the actions of Allaah tied to His will and power with the argument that this would necessitate change in Allaah's essence, and therefore render Him a jism, and this is based upon the "Maqoolaat" (Ten Categories) of Aristotle whose language, terminology and classification is the underlying basis for the Tawheed of the Mutakallimeen.

So Qutb is denying Allaah's istiwaa by figuratively interpreting it to mean an aboveness in status and rank (see what has preceded), and then also denying it from another angle in rejecting that Allaah has actions tied to His will and power.

These are only two texts from Qutb in which the deen of the Jahmiyyah on the subject of al-istiwaa and the issue of "hawaadith" have been covered by Qutb, and these are standard Ash'arite doctrines, upon which their creed is based.

Ta'weel of al-istiwaa and Negation of Sifaat Fi'liyyah

Sayyid Qutb wrote in his commentary on Surah al-Furqaan (25:59):

As for al-istiwaa over the Arsh, then it is the meaning of superiority (in rank) and control, authority and the word "thumma" (then) does not indicate tarteeb (order) in time, but it indicates the dimension of rank (status), the rank of al-istiwaa and al-Isti'laa.

And he also wrote in his commentary on of Surah al-Hadeed (57:4)

And likewise the Arsh, we believe in it as He has mentioned it, but we do not know its reality. As for al-istiwaa over the Arsh, we are able to say: It is an allusion (indirect expression) of the control, dominion, authority (haymanah) over this creation. [This is] founded on what we know from the Qur'an, out of certainty that Allaah, the Sublime, circumstances do not change for Allaah. Hence, He is not in the state of the absence of istiwaa over the Throne, which is then followed by the state of istiwa. And the saying that "We believe in al-istiwaa and we do not know its kaifiyyah" does not explain His, the Most High's saying, "then he made istawaa". And it is more appropriate that we say: It is an indirect expression for control, dominion, authority (haymanah) as has we have mentioned. And the ta'weel (figurative explanation) here does not depart from the methodology that we have indicated just now, because it does not spring from the corroborations and conceptions from our own selves. It is founded upon the corroborations of the Qur'an itself, and upon the conception that it inspires from the Essence of Allaah and His Attributes.

From these quotes the following points can be made:

Point 1: The Rejection of al-Istiwaa

Sayyid Qutb wrote in his commentary upon Surah al-Furqaan:

As for al-istiwaa over the Arsh, then it is the meaning of superiority (in rank) and control, authority.

And likewise in his commentary on Surah al-Hadeed:

As for al-istiwaa over the Arsh, we are able to say: It is an allusion (indirect expression) of the control, dominion, authority (haymanah) over this creation.

This is a clear rejection of al-istiwaa which the Salaf unanimously affirmed and which the Jahmiyyah, Mu'tazilah, Ash'ariyyah and all the factions of Kalaam rejected, and for which the Salaf refuted them, rebuked them and warned against them. And Qutb is an Ash'ari and in his commentary upon Surah al-Hadeed, there is what indicates clearly that Qutb knew the way of the Salaf on this issue and deliberately opposed it, showing that on this particular issue, the proof is established against him, and this is made clear by:

Point 2: Deliberate Opposition to the Salaf

And the saying that "We believe in al-istiwaa and we do not know its kaifiyyah" does not explain His, the Most High's saying, "then he made istawaa". And it is more appropriate that we say: It is an indirect expression for control, dominion, authority (haymanah) as has we have mentioned.

This quote, taken from his commentary on Surah al-Hadeed (57:4) indicates clearly that Qutb knew the way of the Salaf, which is to affirm al-istiwaa and to negate the kaifiyyah and this is the way of all of the Salaf, with the broad principle in this regard found in the famous saying of Imaam Maalik, "al-Istiwaa is known by the kayf is unknown". Qutb says that this does not really explain the saying of Allaah, so he is not pleased with what the Salaf were pleased with and were united upon, with consensus. In this issue, the hujjah (proof) is established, and we do not say in all issues, because Qutb was a non-Scholar, he was ignorant of the Islamic aqidah, his affair is between him and Allaah, but on some issues, the hujjah is established, through his own words in this case.

Point 3: Rejection of al-istiwaa from the Jahmite Angle of "Hulool ul-Hawaadith"

Qutb said in what has been quoted from him above:

...and the word "thumma" (then) does not indicate tarteeb (order) in time, but it indicates the dimension of rank (status), the rank of al-istiwaa and al-Isti'laa (both meaning superiority in rank).

And also:

[This is] founded on what we know from the Qur'an, out of certainty that Allaah, the Sublime, circumstances do not change for Allaah. Hence, He is not in the state of the absence of istiwaa over the Throne, which is then followed by the state of istiwa.

In both of these statements Sayyid Qutb is bringing the doctrine of the Jahmiyyah (and those who followed them) in negating what they deem to be "hawaadith" (events, occurrences), and this follows on from Aristotle's Ten Categories (al-Maqoolaat al-Ashar) upon which the deen of the Mutakallimeen is based, meaning that Tawheed to them is negating these Ten Catgories that characterize the universe from Allaah, and all the Mutakallimeen and Kafirs like Ibn Sina (d. 429H) are united in this approach. They just differ with each other on issues that branch of from this foundation. So one of the issues that Allaah can't have actions or be subject to actions, and thus, to them Allaah's istiwaa (an action) has to be denied by figurative interpretation, and likewise that Allaah loves, is pleased, and becomes angry, all actions, have to be interpreted as well, otherwise this would mean "affection (infi'aal)" one of Aristotle's categories, and it would therefore mean that Allaah is a jism (body), because all of these denote change (taghayyur), in the view of the Mutakallimeen.

And Sayyid Qutb has expounded this doctrine, not once but at least a few time in his commentary on different verses in the Qur'an. And as the Scholars have mentioned, those who propagate, aggrandize and introduce others to his tafseer, then they contribute to the spread of the deen of the Jahmiyyah and by reading this commentary, people who lack knowledge are led to the doctrines of the Jahmiyyah of negating Allaah's uluww, and speaking with the creation of the Qur'an and the rejection of aahaad hadeeth in aqidah and many other affairs.

And the difference between the books of Sayyid Qutb and those of true Scholars such as Ibn Hajar and an-Nawawi, is that if you take away the mistakes found in their works, what is left is an ocean of knowledge. But if you take away the mistakes of Sayyid Qutb, you are not left actual knowledge but just literary style which is effective in affecting the emotions, there is no actual knowledge, and we are speaking here just of his commentary. As for his other book Milestones, then that is a Leninist Manifesto that has simply been Islamicized by Qutb, by which he intended the instigation of revolutions in Egypt specifically, but the whole world. And all of that is not from the deen of Islaam, this is known by aql as well as naql.

Point 4: Arguing for the Madhhab of Ta'weel

Sayyid Qutb wrote:

And the ta'weel (figurative explanation) here does not depart from the methodology that we have indicated just now, because it does not spring from the corroborations and conceptions [arising] from our own selves. It is founded upon the corroborations of the Qur'an itself, and upon the conception that it inspires from the Essence of Allaah and His Attributes.

What he has stated here is the standard Ash'arite apologeticism for taw'eel as a broad methodology for dealing with those texts they believe give the presumption of "hawaadith" (events, occurrences) and Tajseem (Anthropomorphism) which is that when they make ta'weel, they are not inventing interpretations from their own imaginations and thoughts, but rather from other meanings that are afforded by the revelation itself. As for the methodology of the Salaf, then it is to take the texts upon their dhaahir whilst negating likeness to the creation, and this has been dealt with in detail elsewhere. The point being here is that Qutb is an Ash'ari and is outlining and defending the standard Ash'arite dogma in his words above.


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