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Impaling Jahmee Doubts: An Open Invitation To Nuh Keller To Recant and Repent From His Ta'weel Frauds - The Attribute of Hands
Posted by Abu.Iyaad, in Articles
Topics: Nuh Keller Nuh Ha Mim Keller Nuh Keller Nuh Ha Mim Keller

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An Open Address to Nuh Keller

You stated in a lecture of yours in which you imputed your own Jahmite views to many of the Salaf, an instance of that being:

Hands. In the verse,"And the sky We built with hands; verily We outspread [it]" (Qur'an 51:47),al-Tabari ascribes the figurative explanation (ta'wil) of hands as meaning "with power (bi quwwa)" through five chains of transmission to Ibn 'Abbas, who died 68 years after the Hijra, Mujahid who died 104 years after the Hijra, Qatada [ibn Da'ama] who died 118 years after the Hijra, Mansur [ibn Zadhan al-Thaqafi] who died 131 years after the Hijra, and Sufyan al-Thawri who died 161 years after the Hijra (Jami' al-bayan, 27.7-8). I mention these dates to show just how early they were.

You said this in a lecture of yours going back 14 years and it has been well distributed and spread.

So continuing to address Keller and point out to you with respect to what you stated above:

Your lie upon Allaah, the Exalted, and upon His Speech, the Book of Allaah, in imputing a meaning to the verse Dhaariyyaat 51:47 that is not its meaning intended by Allaah. Your lie upon Ibn Jareer at-Tabari in ascribing to him the imputing of your Jahmite belief to one of the Companions and four of the early Salaf. Your lie upon Ibn Abbaas (radiallaahu anhu), imputing to him your own ta'weel fraud. Your lie upon Mujahid, imputing to him your ta'weel fraud. Your lie upon Qatada, imputing to him your ta'weel fraud. Your lie upon Mansur, imputing to him your ta'weel fraud. Your lie upon Sufyan, imputing to him your ta'weel fraud.

We wish kindness and generosity in offering this act of benevolence to lighten your burden ...

Identifying and Detailing the Crime

In the quote above, we see that you have lied upon Allaah in claiming that when He said, "And the Heaven, we built with aydin" in Surah adh-Dhaariyaat (51:47) - either out of your compound ignorance of the Arabic language, or out of calculated Jahmite deception - you claimed that the word "aydin" in this verse is the plural of "yad" (hand), meaning - according to you - "hands" and thus you claimed that Allaah said, "And the Heaven, we built with hands", when in reality what Allaah actually said is "And the Heaven, we built with strength, power".

And the reason why you did this was to enable you to then make your (false) assertion that the Salaf made ta'weel of "hands" to "power", when in reality, they did no such thing.

This is uncovered and exposed with the following:

Point 1: The Early Salaf Interpreted "aydin" With Strength, Power (Quwwah) in Accordance with the Clear Arabic Language

At-Tabari mentions the explanation of the word "aydin" - which means "quwwah" (strength) in the language itself and he mentions it from many from the Salaf:

And we see in the above that Mujahid, Qatada, Mansur, Sufyaan and also Ibn Zayd indeed said regarding "bi-aydin", that it means "with power" - so you have correctly stated that they said "with power" - this is factually correct. However your fraud is that you imputed to them making figurative ta'weel (as you understand it) of "aydin" which you first claimed is "hands" in this verse - to "power".

And they did no such thing - rather they explained the word "aydin" to mean exactly what it means in the language itself, "strength, power (quwwah)" - so this not an instance of the presumed Jahmite ta'weel which you have fraudulently attempted to ascribe to the early Salaf.

And what supports this is that in relation to the Jahmite ta'weels of "al-yad" to "power" and "favour", then the Salaf are agreed upon rejection of them until even Abu Bakr al-Baqillani (an early prominent Ash'ari) rejects such interpretations (see here).

Point 2: The Word "aydin" is a Noun Which Means Strength (quwwah) and it is from the Root "Aada" and it has its own Entry in the Dictionaries

From Lisaan ul-Arab of Ibn Mandhoor

...And you say from "al-ayd", "ayyadtuhu ta'yeedan" meaning I strengthened him, and the active participle is "mu'ayyid" and its diminutive is also "mu'ayyid" and its passive is "mu'ayyad" and in the Mighty Revelation is "And the Heaven, we built it with aydin". Abul-Haytham said: "aada, ya'eedu", when he became strong, and "aayada, yu'eedu iyaadan" when he becomes one possessing power...

From Ibn Faari's Maqaayees ul-Lughah

(Ayd), [composed of] al-hamzah, al-yaa and ad-daal, a single root, and it indicates power (quwwah) and preservation (al-hifdh). It is said, "ayyadahullaah" meaning Allaah strengthened him. Allaah, the Exalted said, "And the heaven, we built with aydin", so this is the meaning of power.

From Lane's Lexicon Under the Root (aada)

We see that "aada" is a verb in its own right with the meaning, "he or it was, or became strong", and then we see the nouns, "aadun" and "aydun" with the meaning "strength, power" - and this from the clear manifest Arabic language - it is not a Jahmee ta'weel.

From al-Fayrozabaadi's al-Qaamoos al-Muheet

And here we see that "aada" is a verb in its own right, with the meaning "he or it, was or became strong" and from this verb are numerous other nouns such as "ta'yeed" (strengthening) and "al-ayd" meaning al-quwwah (strength, power) - and so this is from the clear manifest Arabic language - it is not a Jahmee ta'weel.

And in Mukhtar as-Sihaah, under the entry "al-yad", there occurs:

And Allaah the Most High said, "And the heaven, we built it with aydin...". I say: The saying of Allaah "bi-aydin", meaning "with power", and it (aydin) is the verbal noun (masdar) of "aada", "ya'eedu aydan", meaning when "he became strong", and it is not the plural of "hand" ... and al-Azharee has textually stated the meaning of "al-ayd" in this verse to be its verbal (infinitive) noun..."

Point 3: Allaah's description of Dawud (alayhis salaam) as "Dhal-Ayd" - Meaning Endued With Strength

The saying of Allaah the Most High:

... and remember our servant, Dawud, dhal-Ayd (endued with strength)

And we can look at at-Tabari's tafseer of this verse:

At-Tabari says:

... and He means by His saying, "dhal-ayd", meaning endued with strength, power (quwwah) and severe strength ("batsh shadeed") [all] for Allaah ...

Then he quotes the explanations from Ibn Abbaas who said about "dhal-ayd", "endued with strength, power (dhal-quwwah)", and from Mujahid, "endued with strength, power (quwwah) in Allaah's obedience", and the same explanation from as-Sudee, and then he says regarding Ibn Zayd:

Ibn Zayd said: "Dhal-Ayd", he said: [meaning], "Dhal-quwwah" (endued with strength, power) in Allaah's obedience, al-Ayd [meaning] al-quwwah (strength, power), and then he recited the verse, "And the Heaven, we created it with aydin", [and] said: "With strength, power (quwwah)".

Here your fraud becomes an even greater enormity because of one of two things:

  • Your claimed fraud necessitates that Allaah is saying, "And remember Our servant Dawud (alayhis salaam), endued with hands...", and of what benefit is that to the Prophet Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) - to whom this verse is addressed - for him to remember that Dawud had hands!! Of what benefit is it for Allaah to say, "And have patience over what they say (to you) and remember Our servant Dawud, endued with hands..." whilst addressing the Messenger, advising him to be patient of the harms he is suffering and telling him to remember Dawud, the one with "hands"?!

  • Or your claimed fraud necessitates that the Salaf made ta'weel of what Allaah mentions of Dawud's hands (according to your fraud) to "power" - and hence the question arises: For what purpose did the Salaf feel the need to make ta'weel of Dawud's "hands" to "power"?!

So your fraud is manifest ... and there is nothing left for you except to recant and repent from lying upon Allaah, lying upon the Companion Ibn 'Abbaas and lying upon the Taabi'een, and lying upon at-Tabari.

Point 4: What Has Been Said By Fakhr ud-Deen ar-Raazee (An Imaam of the Ash'ariyyah)

Ar-Raazee says in his tafseer (15/194):

The translation of which is:

And his, the Most High's saying, "... with aydin...", meaning power (quwwah), an al-ayd is al-quwwah. This is what is well known, and it is how His saying, the Most High, "... endued with power, indeed he [Dawud] was oft-returning..." is explained. It is possible for it to be said that the intent (behind aydin) is the plural of "al-yad", and its evidence is that the Most High said, "... what I have created with My own Two Hands ...", and "...from what Our Hands have created, (of) cattle...". But in reality it returns back to the first meaning (i.e. al-ayd).

Whilst ar-Raazee admits and says the true meaning is the verbal noun "aydin" rather than the plural of "al-yad", he speaks of the possibility for it to be said that the meaning is the plural of "al-yad" - and this can be covered in a separate article dealing specifically with the Attribute of "al-yad" for Allaah - but briefly, in this verse Allaah did not ascribe "al-ayd" to Himself through a possessive pronoun - as opposed to the other verses where "yadaan" and "aydee" are ascribed to Allaah with possessive pronouns. Thus, this is not a verse related to the Attributes, whereas the other verses, the Salaf treated them as verses of the Attributes.

Point 5: Allaah's Ascription of "Hand" To Himself in the Qur'an Through Possessive Pronouns

Following on from what was mentioned in the last point, we can see the various ways in which Allaah has ascribed "al-yad" (Hand) to Himself, Allaah, or to Himself through a possessive pronoun - as opposed to what occurs in the verse "And the Heaven we built with aydin (power)" in which no such ascription is made.

  • "Say, the bounty is in the Hand of Allaah (bi yad illaahi)" (3:73)
  • "And the Jews say: The Hand of Allaah is tied (yad ullaahi)..." and later in the verse "... nay both His Hands (yadaahu) are oustretched..." (5:64)
  • "He said: O Iblees, what prevented you from prostrating to what I created with My Own Two Hands (bi yadaiyya)..." (38:75)
  • "Do they not see that We have created for them of what Our Hands (aydeenaa) have created, the cattle..." (36:71)
  • "Blessed be the One in Whose Hand (bi yadihi) is the Dominion..." (67:1)

And this is just a sample of what can be found in the Qur'aan. So in these verses, Allaah use the possessive pronoun to ascribe "al-yad" to Himself, indicating that these are verses of the Attributes - and the Salaf were unanimously agreed upon that before, during and after the emergence of the Jahmites. As for the for verse, "And the heaven, we built with aydin", then here the word "aydin" is not ascribed to Allaah with a possessive pronoun, and hence it is not treated as a verse of the Attributes, it just takes on its normal and well-known meaning which is that of "power (quwwah)".

Point 6: Allaah's Use of the Word "aada" and its Derivatives in the Qur'aan

We see that Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, has used the second form of the verb "aada", which are "ayyada" and "yu'ayyidu" with the meaning of "strengthening (someone else)".

And examples of that are in:

  • Addressing Eesaa (alayhis salaam): "Remember My Favour to you and to your mother when I supported you (ayyadtuka) with Rooh­ ul­-Qudus [Jibrael (Gabriel)] so that you spoke to the people in the cradle..." (al-Maa'idah 5:110)
  • Addressing Muhammad (alayhis salaam): "He is the one who supported you (ayyadaka) with His aid and with the Believers..." (al-Anfaal 8:62)
  • Addressing the Believers ,"And remember when you were few and were reckoned weak in the land, and were afraid that men might kidnap you, but He provided a safe place for you, strengthened you (ayyadakum) with His Help, and provided you with good things so that you might be grateful." (Al-Anfal 8:26)
  • And there are examples of "ayyadnaa" (Saff 61:14), "ayyadnaahu" (Baqarah 2:87 and 2:253), "ayyadahu" (Tawbah 9:40), "ayyadahum" (Mujaadilah 58:22).
  • And in Aali Imraan (3:13), "And Allaah strengthens (supports) (yu'ayyidu) whomever He wills with His aid (victory) ..."

So we see the use of the derivative forms of "aada" used often in the Qur'an, and from them is the noun "aydin" which simply means strength. So the Salaf simply made tafseer of the verse in accordance to the dhaahir of the language, which is "strength, power (quwwah)" - and which can be found in any dictionary.

Point 7: The Salaf's Rejection of The Claimed ta'weel

The rejection of the Salaf as well as some of the early Ash'arites, such as al-Baqillani, (and al-Ash'ari himself) of the figurative interpretation of "al-yad" to mean power, or favour is well known and famous. And this is too famous to even need mentioning. See here and here article regarding al-Baqillani's refutation of such a ta'weel - and as for what has come from the Salaf, then it is abundant.

Point 8: Abu Hasan al-Ash'ari Refutes the Claimed ta'weel of "aydin" to "Hands" to "Power"

This is from the 1977 first edition print of "al-Ibaanah anil Usool id-Diyaanah", published in Cairo, Egypt (Daar ul-Ansaar) where Abul-Hasan al-Ash'ari addresses this particular verse:

Note here that al-Ash'ari is refuting the Mu'tazilah, he is addressing the Mu'tazilah, and this ta'weel originated with the Jahmiyyah and the Mu'tazilah - and how unfortunate it is that today's claimants to Abu Hasan al-Ash'ari are holding on to the ta'weels of the Jahmites and Mu'tazilites, that al-Ash'ari himself refuted.

This translates as:


And it has been alledged by a purporter, with the saying of Allaah, the Most High, "And the heaven, we made with aydin" (51/47), they said: al-ayd (meaning) al-quwwah (strength, power), thus it becomes obligatory that the meaning of His, the Most High's saying, "Bi yadaiyya" means with "with my power".

It is said to them: This ta'weel is corrupt from a number of angles. The first, that "al-aayd" is not the plural of "al-yad", because the plural of "yad" is "aydee", and the plural of "al-yad" which is [with the meaning of] "ni'mah (favour, bounty)" is "ayaadee", but the Most High said, "...what I created with my yadaiyya..." (38/75).

Thus, [the claim] that the meaning of His saying, "... bi yadaiyya..." is [the same as] the meaning of "...[the Heaven] we made it [with aydin]..." is falsified.

Then al-Ash'ari brings some other angles, from them, that the Mu'tazilah don't even affirm one power (qudrah), so how can they interpret "yadaiyya (Two Hands)" to mean two powers? And also if the ta'weel of the verse where Allaah mentions He created Adam with His Two Hands was that it means power, then how can Adam have been favoured over Iblees, when Allaah created Iblees with His power as well? So where is the distinction, so the ta'weel of Two Hands to power cannot be correct.

Point 9: Al-Baqillani's Rejection of The Claimed ta'weel of Hand to Power and Favour

For the record, we can include here an excerpt from al-Baqillani's "at-Tamheed".

Chapter: Concerning Allaah Having a Face and Two Hands

So if someone said: What is the proof concerning Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, having a Face and two Hands?

It is said to him: His, the Most High's saying, for Allaah: And the Face of your Lord shall remain (the Face) full of Majesty and Honour. (ar-Rahmaan 55:27). And His saying: What prevented you from prostrating to (one) whom I created with my own Two Hands? (Saad 38:75)

Hence, He affirmed for Himself a Face and Two Hands.

If they say: So what has led you to reject that the meaning in His saying, "...created with my own Two Hands..." is that He created him with His power (qudrah) or through His favour (ni'mah)? Because hand (al-yad) in the language can be with the meaning favour (an-ni'mah) and power (al-qudrah), as is said, "I have a white hand over so and so", meaning by it, a favour. And as is said, "This thing is in the hand of so and so, or under the hand of so and so", intending by it that it is under his power and ownership. And it is said, "rajulu aydin (a man of hands)" when he is capable (qaadir), as Allaah, the Most High, said: "We created for them from what Our Hands have created, cattle ..." (Yaaseen 36:71), meaning We have created with our power.

And the poet said: Whenever a flag is raised for glory, Uraabah takes it with the right hand [meaning with strength, quwwah].

It is said (in reply) to them: This is false (baatil) because His saying, "... with my own Two Hands..." necessitates the affirmation of Two Hands which are both an attribute for Him. If the intent by them had been power (al-qudrah), it would be imperative that He has two powers, and you (referring to the Mu'tazilah, Jahmiyyah), you do not assert that the Creator, the Sublime, has even a single power (i.e. does not have the attribute of qudrah), so how is it permissible for you to affirm two powers for him?

And the Muslims, from the affirmers of the Attributes and their deniers, are united upon it not being permitted that Allaah should have two powers, thus, what you have said is falsified.

Likewise, it is not permissible that Allaah, the Most High, created Aadam with two favours, because the favours of Allaah, the Most High, upon Aadam and others cannot be counted. And also because it is not permitted for a person to say, "I raised the thing with my two hands", or "I placed it with my two hands", or "I took possession of it with my two hands", meaning [by that] his favour. And likewise it is not permissible for it to be said, "I have two hands over so and so", meaning two favours, rather it is said, "I have two white hands over so and so" (with the meaning I have two favours over him), because the saying "al-yad (hand)" (on its own) is not used except for the hand that is an attribute of the essence.

What also indicates the corruption of their ta'weel is that if the affair had been as they have said, Iblees would not have been unmindful of that, and [unmindful] that he should say (when asked to prostrate), "What excellence does Aadam have over me that requires me to prostrate to him, when You created me with your Hand as well, which is your qudrah (power) and with your ni'mah (bounty, favour) you created me?" With the knowledge that Allaah, the Most High, favoured Aadam over him (Iblees) by creating him with His Two Hands is evidence of the corruption of what they have said.

View the original article on this (see here).

So here we have two most important people in the Ash'ari madhhab from the earlier, leading Ash'aris - both rejecting the ta'weels of the Jahmites and Mu'tazilites that the Later Ash'aris adopted!

Point 10: Why This ta'weel is a Fraud

It is not possible for anyone in the late 20th century to claim to be ignorant of what is manifestly and clearly reported from the Salaf of their refutation and repudiation of the Jahmite ta'weels that originated in the second century after hijrah, amongst which is their refutations of the ta'weel of Hand to mean power of favour (as it relates to Allaah's attribution of Hand to Himself).

And we find that the various collectors of hadeeth (al-Bukari, Muslim, Abu Dawud etc.) included chapters in their works in refutation of the Jahmites specifically on issues such as this. It is not possible for anyone who steps up to speak on the issue of the attribute of the Hand, after having looked at everything spoken and written on this specific issue from the Salaf, and likewise what is found in the Arabic language, to claim to be ignorant, or to claim that the above verse is an instance of ta'weel of the Salaf.

So either one has not deliberately looked into all of that and is therefore speaking in ignorance of what the Salaf were upon. Or one is deliberately trying to deceive with full knowledge. Thus, there is no excuse for anyone claiming that this verse is an instance of ta'weel by the Salaf.

Point 11: What is Now Obligatory Upon You

After what has preceded, we have no doubt that you fear being held to account by your Lord for this fraud on the Day when there will be no excuses. More specifically, it is befitting that you say:

  • I recognize my folly in attempting to pass off a Jahmite ta'weel as the saying of the Salaf - when the rejection of such a ta'weel of al-yad to "power" is transmitted from a large body of the Salaf and about which I cannot claim ignorance.

  • I seek forgiveness from Allaah for ascribing to at-Tabari that he ascribes the figurative ta'weel to the companion Ibn Abbaas and other commentators of the Qur'an from the early Salaf.

  • I seek forgiveness from Allaah for lying upon Mujaahid, Qatada, Mansur and Sufyaan (ath-Thawree), and ascribing my own wicked Jahmite distortion to them - for I have now come to realise that there is a verb "aada" in the Arabic dictionary, and that there is a noun derived from this verb "aydin" which means "strength", and that these early Salaf simply gave the natural explanation of the word to mean "strength, power (quwwah)" and that this is corroborated even by the likes of (Fakhr ud-Deen) ar-Raazee.

  • I recognize my utter foolishness in trying to pass off this Jahmite fraud, especially in light of the verse in Surah as-Sa'd (no. 17) regarding Allaah asking the Messenger (alayhis salaam) to remember Dawud (alayhis salaam), the one who was endued with power and oft-returning.

  • I acknowledge that the most important figures in the Ash'ari madhhab, Abu Hasan al-Ash'ari himself and Abu Bakr al-Baqillani both affirmed the attribute of (two) Hands for Allaah without ta'weel and without that necessitating Tajseem (see here) - and in light of that I should restrain my tongue from uttering Jahmite frauds in trying to deny what those whom I ascribe to themselves affirmed.

  • I free myself from this Jahmite ta'weel and this perpetrated fraud and as my article in which this fraud was perpetrated is spread all over, I announce that I am free from this ta'weel and let anyone who uses my article, spreads or distributes it, be aware that I recant from that and do not speak with it.

So if you were to do that, it would lighten your burden and save you from the ignominy of having to face those whom you lied upon on the Day of Judgement, and remember that there is no sagheerah or kabeerah except that it is recorded in a book, and neither did you write or speak this ta'weel fraud of yours except that the Angels recorded it, and it will be opened up and you will be held to account for it, and we seek refuge in Allaah from the accounting on that day. So appreciate this act of benevolence and be grateful and recant and repent and inform your followers of the same - lest you be made to carry the burden of tens of thousands alongside your own.

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'arad21st century kalam atomista'raadabdul-qadir al-jeelaaneeabdul-qadir al-jilaniabdullaah ibn al-mubaarakabdullah ali al-aminabu abdullah bin hamidabu adam al-naruijiabu adam naruijiabu adam narujiabu al-abbas al-qalanisiabu al-hasan bin al-zaghuniabu al-hudhayl al-allaafabu ali al-ahwaziabu bakr al-baqillaniabu bakr al-isma'iliabu bakr al-ismaa'eeleeabu bilal malikiabu fadl al-tamimiabu hamid al-ghazaliabu hanifahabu hasan al-ash'ariabu isma'il al-harawiabu layth bin ataaabu mansur al-baghdadiabu ya'laaabul-hasan ibn mahdi at-tabariaccidentadh-dhahabeeadh-dhahabiaf'aal ikhtiyaariyyahahl al-kalaamahl al-kalamahmad bin sinan al-waasiteeahmed cobraakhbaar ul-aahaadal-'aradal-aamideeal-akhtalal-amidial-arshal-ash'areeal-ash'arial-asharial-baqillanial-bayhaqial-bukhaareeal-dhahabial-ghazalial-haddal-hawaadithal-ibanahal-istiwaaal-jahm bin safwanal-jawhar al-fardal-jihahal-jismal-juwayneeal-juwaynial-kawthareeal-khateeb al-baghdaadeeal-khatib al-baghdadial-milal wan-nihalal-muhasibial-naruijial-nawaweeal-nawawial-qadi abd al-wahhab al-malikial-qadi abu ya'laaal-qalanisial-qurtubeeal-qurtubial-qushayrial-razial-shahrastanial-tabyinal-taftazanial-tahawial-tarkibal-uluwwal-uluwwwal-wajhal-yadallaah's angerallaah's namesallaah's pleasurean-nadhr al-istidlaalan-nawawianthropomorphismanthropomorphistsar-raziaristotelian metaphysicsaristotelians anonymousaristotlearshas-sanusiasaas ut-taqdisash'areesash'ariash'ari burnoutash'ari scholarsash'ariteash'aritesash'ariyyahashareesashari scholarsasharisasmaaasrar rasheedasrar rashidat-tabariat-tirmidheeatabek shukrov nasafiatheismatomismaugustineaydinbaqillanibarelwibayaan talbees al-jahmiyyahbayjooribayjuribelief sciencebetter ash'aribi dhatihibishr al-mareesibucket theologycompetition cornercompositeday of arafahdemocritusdetoxdivisibleearly ash'arisearly ashariseesaaencompassmentfake hanbalisfakhr al-din al-razifakhr ud-din ar-razifalaasifahfalsafahfaqirfawqiyyahforty hadithgf haddadghadabgrave worshipgreek philosophershaadithhaashiyahhanbalisharfharranharwalahhellenismhishaamiyyahhizb ut-tahrirhudoothhudooth ul-ajsaamhuloolhulul al-hawadithibn abi zayd al-qayrawaniibn al-mutahhiribn asaakiribn asakiribn battahibn darbasibn fawrakibn hajribn hajr al-asqalaniibn jareer at-tabariibn jarir al-tabariibn khuzaymahibn kullaabibn kullabibn mahdi al-tabariibn seenaibn sinaibn taymiyyahibrahim osi-efaidol worshipihaatahilm al-kalaamilm al-kalamilm ul-kalamimaam adh-dhahabiimaam ahmadimaam ahmad bin hanbalimaam ash-shaafi'eeimam malikinqisaamintercessionintoxicationistidlaalistiwaaithbaatittihaadityaanjahm bin safwaanjahm bin safwanjahmee baleedjahmeespeakjahmi baleedjahmitejahmite ash'arisjahmitesjahmiyyahjahmiyyah mu'tazilahjawharjawharahjawharat ut-tawhidjihahjismjismiyyahkalaamkalaam nafseekalaam nafsikalam atomismkalam nafsikarraamiyyahkhabar ul-waahidkullaabi ash'ariskullaabiyyahkullabi asharislafdhiyyahlater ash'arisliquormarifahmetaphysicsmicro madrasamu'tazilahmuhammad abduhmuhammad anwar shah al-kashmirimuhammad fahmimuhammad sa'eed ramadan al-butimuhdathmujassimahmurakkabmushabbihahmutafalsifahmutakallimoonnadhrnaqd al-tadmuriyyahnaruijinaseehah dhahabiyyahneo-hanbalisneo-platonismnihaayat ul-iqdaamnizar hammadinuh ha mim kellernuh kellernur uz zamaan institutenuzoolpersonal developmentphiladelphian jahmite ash'arisphiladelphian jahmitesphilophilosophersplatopseudo-hanbalisqadi abdul-jabbarqu'ranqur'anqur'an creationistsquraanquranridhaariyadh al-saaliheenrizqullah al-tamimisaalimiyyahsabeanssaeed foudahsaeed foudah sa'id foudahsaint worshipsalafiyyahsawtsayyid qutbseeking ilmself awarenessself helpshafaa'ahshahrastaanishahrastanisifaatsifaat dhaatiyyahsifaat fi'liyyahsifat fi'liyyahsifat khabariyyahsubstancesumaniyyahta'teelta'weelta'wiltabyin kadhib al-muftaritafweedtaj al-din al-subkitajseemtajsimtakaafu' al-adillahtakyeeftamtheeltaqi ad-din an-nabahanitaqiuddin al-nabhanitarkeebtashbeehtawhidtawhid al-ibaadahtawhid al-ibadahtawhid al-uloohiyyahtawhid al-uluhiyyahthe clinicthe quranthe thronetheologiansthomas aquinasthronetop tipsuluwwundercover ash'arisvoicewahhabiwahhabisyahyaa bin ammaaryusuf al-qaradawiyusuf an-nabahani
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