|Friday, 24 March 2023|
Never see Ash'ariyyah in the same light, ever again! Aristotle of Stageira, Philo of Alexandria, Augustine of Hippo, the Sabeans of Harraan, the Mu'tazilites of Basrah and Baghdad and the Jahmite Ash'ari Heretics of Today Claiming Orthodoxy. Read the first article, the second article, the third article, the fourth article, the fifth article.
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An Open Address to Nuh Keller
You stated in a lecture of yours in which you imputed your own Jahmite views to many of the Salaf, an instance of that being:
Hands. In the verse,"And the sky We built with hands; verily We outspread [it]" (Qur'an 51:47),al-Tabari ascribes the figurative explanation (ta'wil) of hands as meaning "with power (bi quwwa)" through five chains of transmission to Ibn 'Abbas, who died 68 years after the Hijra, Mujahid who died 104 years after the Hijra, Qatada [ibn Da'ama] who died 118 years after the Hijra, Mansur [ibn Zadhan al-Thaqafi] who died 131 years after the Hijra, and Sufyan al-Thawri who died 161 years after the Hijra (Jami' al-bayan, 27.7-8). I mention these dates to show just how early they were.
You said this in a lecture of yours going back 14 years and it has been well distributed and spread.
So continuing to address Keller and point out to you with respect to what you stated above:
Your lie upon Allaah, the Exalted, and upon His Speech, the Book of Allaah, in imputing a meaning to the verse Dhaariyyaat 51:47 that is not its meaning intended by Allaah. Your lie upon Ibn Jareer at-Tabari in ascribing to him the imputing of your Jahmite belief to one of the Companions and four of the early Salaf. Your lie upon Ibn Abbaas (radiallaahu anhu), imputing to him your own ta'weel fraud. Your lie upon Mujahid, imputing to him your ta'weel fraud. Your lie upon Qatada, imputing to him your ta'weel fraud. Your lie upon Mansur, imputing to him your ta'weel fraud. Your lie upon Sufyan, imputing to him your ta'weel fraud.
We wish kindness and generosity in offering this act of benevolence to lighten your burden ...
Identifying and Detailing the Crime
In the quote above, we see that you have lied upon Allaah in claiming that when He said, "And the Heaven, we built with aydin" in Surah adh-Dhaariyaat (51:47) - either out of your compound ignorance of the Arabic language, or out of calculated Jahmite deception - you claimed that the word "aydin" in this verse is the plural of "yad" (hand), meaning - according to you - "hands" and thus you claimed that Allaah said, "And the Heaven, we built with hands", when in reality what Allaah actually said is "And the Heaven, we built with strength, power".
And the reason why you did this was to enable you to then make your (false) assertion that the Salaf made ta'weel of "hands" to "power", when in reality, they did no such thing.
This is uncovered and exposed with the following:
Point 1: The Early Salaf Interpreted "aydin" With Strength, Power (Quwwah) in Accordance with the Clear Arabic Language
At-Tabari mentions the explanation of the word "aydin" - which means "quwwah" (strength) in the language itself and he mentions it from many from the Salaf:
And we see in the above that Mujahid, Qatada, Mansur, Sufyaan and also Ibn Zayd indeed said regarding "bi-aydin", that it means "with power" - so you have correctly stated that they said "with power" - this is factually correct. However your fraud is that you imputed to them making figurative ta'weel (as you understand it) of "aydin" which you first claimed is "hands" in this verse - to "power".
And they did no such thing - rather they explained the word "aydin" to mean exactly what it means in the language itself, "strength, power (quwwah)" - so this not an instance of the presumed Jahmite ta'weel which you have fraudulently attempted to ascribe to the early Salaf.
And what supports this is that in relation to the Jahmite ta'weels of "al-yad" to "power" and "favour", then the Salaf are agreed upon rejection of them until even Abu Bakr al-Baqillani (an early prominent Ash'ari) rejects such interpretations (see here).
Point 2: The Word "aydin" is a Noun Which Means Strength (quwwah) and it is from the Root "Aada" and it has its own Entry in the Dictionaries
From Lisaan ul-Arab of Ibn Mandhoor
...And you say from "al-ayd", "ayyadtuhu ta'yeedan" meaning I strengthened him, and the active participle is "mu'ayyid" and its diminutive is also "mu'ayyid" and its passive is "mu'ayyad" and in the Mighty Revelation is "And the Heaven, we built it with aydin". Abul-Haytham said: "aada, ya'eedu", when he became strong, and "aayada, yu'eedu iyaadan" when he becomes one possessing power...
From Ibn Faari's Maqaayees ul-Lughah
(Ayd), [composed of] al-hamzah, al-yaa and ad-daal, a single root, and it indicates power (quwwah) and preservation (al-hifdh). It is said, "ayyadahullaah" meaning Allaah strengthened him. Allaah, the Exalted said, "And the heaven, we built with aydin", so this is the meaning of power.
From Lane's Lexicon Under the Root (aada)
We see that "aada" is a verb in its own right with the meaning, "he or it was, or became strong", and then we see the nouns, "aadun" and "aydun" with the meaning "strength, power" - and this from the clear manifest Arabic language - it is not a Jahmee ta'weel.
From al-Fayrozabaadi's al-Qaamoos al-Muheet
And here we see that "aada" is a verb in its own right, with the meaning "he or it, was or became strong" and from this verb are numerous other nouns such as "ta'yeed" (strengthening) and "al-ayd" meaning al-quwwah (strength, power) - and so this is from the clear manifest Arabic language - it is not a Jahmee ta'weel.
And in Mukhtar as-Sihaah, under the entry "al-yad", there occurs:
And Allaah the Most High said, "And the heaven, we built it with aydin...". I say: The saying of Allaah "bi-aydin", meaning "with power", and it (aydin) is the verbal noun (masdar) of "aada", "ya'eedu aydan", meaning when "he became strong", and it is not the plural of "hand" ... and al-Azharee has textually stated the meaning of "al-ayd" in this verse to be its verbal (infinitive) noun..."
Point 3: Allaah's description of Dawud (alayhis salaam) as "Dhal-Ayd" - Meaning Endued With Strength
The saying of Allaah the Most High:
... and remember our servant, Dawud, dhal-Ayd (endued with strength)
And we can look at at-Tabari's tafseer of this verse:
... and He means by His saying, "dhal-ayd", meaning endued with strength, power (quwwah) and severe strength ("batsh shadeed") [all] for Allaah ...
Then he quotes the explanations from Ibn Abbaas who said about "dhal-ayd", "endued with strength, power (dhal-quwwah)", and from Mujahid, "endued with strength, power (quwwah) in Allaah's obedience", and the same explanation from as-Sudee, and then he says regarding Ibn Zayd:
Ibn Zayd said: "Dhal-Ayd", he said: [meaning], "Dhal-quwwah" (endued with strength, power) in Allaah's obedience, al-Ayd [meaning] al-quwwah (strength, power), and then he recited the verse, "And the Heaven, we created it with aydin", [and] said: "With strength, power (quwwah)".
Here your fraud becomes an even greater enormity because of one of two things:
So your fraud is manifest ... and there is nothing left for you except to recant and repent from lying upon Allaah, lying upon the Companion Ibn 'Abbaas and lying upon the Taabi'een, and lying upon at-Tabari.
Point 4: What Has Been Said By Fakhr ud-Deen ar-Raazee (An Imaam of the Ash'ariyyah)
Ar-Raazee says in his tafseer (15/194):
The translation of which is:
And his, the Most High's saying, "... with aydin...", meaning power (quwwah), an al-ayd is al-quwwah. This is what is well known, and it is how His saying, the Most High, "... endued with power, indeed he [Dawud] was oft-returning..." is explained. It is possible for it to be said that the intent (behind aydin) is the plural of "al-yad", and its evidence is that the Most High said, "... what I have created with My own Two Hands ...", and "...from what Our Hands have created, (of) cattle...". But in reality it returns back to the first meaning (i.e. al-ayd).
Whilst ar-Raazee admits and says the true meaning is the verbal noun "aydin" rather than the plural of "al-yad", he speaks of the possibility for it to be said that the meaning is the plural of "al-yad" - and this can be covered in a separate article dealing specifically with the Attribute of "al-yad" for Allaah - but briefly, in this verse Allaah did not ascribe "al-ayd" to Himself through a possessive pronoun - as opposed to the other verses where "yadaan" and "aydee" are ascribed to Allaah with possessive pronouns. Thus, this is not a verse related to the Attributes, whereas the other verses, the Salaf treated them as verses of the Attributes.
Point 5: Allaah's Ascription of "Hand" To Himself in the Qur'an Through Possessive Pronouns
Following on from what was mentioned in the last point, we can see the various ways in which Allaah has ascribed "al-yad" (Hand) to Himself, Allaah, or to Himself through a possessive pronoun - as opposed to what occurs in the verse "And the Heaven we built with aydin (power)" in which no such ascription is made.
And this is just a sample of what can be found in the Qur'aan. So in these verses, Allaah use the possessive pronoun to ascribe "al-yad" to Himself, indicating that these are verses of the Attributes - and the Salaf were unanimously agreed upon that before, during and after the emergence of the Jahmites. As for the for verse, "And the heaven, we built with aydin", then here the word "aydin" is not ascribed to Allaah with a possessive pronoun, and hence it is not treated as a verse of the Attributes, it just takes on its normal and well-known meaning which is that of "power (quwwah)".
Point 6: Allaah's Use of the Word "aada" and its Derivatives in the Qur'aan
We see that Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, has used the second form of the verb "aada", which are "ayyada" and "yu'ayyidu" with the meaning of "strengthening (someone else)".
And examples of that are in:
So we see the use of the derivative forms of "aada" used often in the Qur'an, and from them is the noun "aydin" which simply means strength. So the Salaf simply made tafseer of the verse in accordance to the dhaahir of the language, which is "strength, power (quwwah)" - and which can be found in any dictionary.
Point 7: The Salaf's Rejection of The Claimed ta'weel
The rejection of the Salaf as well as some of the early Ash'arites, such as al-Baqillani, (and al-Ash'ari himself) of the figurative interpretation of "al-yad" to mean power, or favour is well known and famous. And this is too famous to even need mentioning. See here and here article regarding al-Baqillani's refutation of such a ta'weel - and as for what has come from the Salaf, then it is abundant.
Point 8: Abu Hasan al-Ash'ari Refutes the Claimed ta'weel of "aydin" to "Hands" to "Power"
This is from the 1977 first edition print of "al-Ibaanah anil Usool id-Diyaanah", published in Cairo, Egypt (Daar ul-Ansaar) where Abul-Hasan al-Ash'ari addresses this particular verse:
Note here that al-Ash'ari is refuting the Mu'tazilah, he is addressing the Mu'tazilah, and this ta'weel originated with the Jahmiyyah and the Mu'tazilah - and how unfortunate it is that today's claimants to Abu Hasan al-Ash'ari are holding on to the ta'weels of the Jahmites and Mu'tazilites, that al-Ash'ari himself refuted.
This translates as:
Then al-Ash'ari brings some other angles, from them, that the Mu'tazilah don't even affirm one power (qudrah), so how can they interpret "yadaiyya (Two Hands)" to mean two powers? And also if the ta'weel of the verse where Allaah mentions He created Adam with His Two Hands was that it means power, then how can Adam have been favoured over Iblees, when Allaah created Iblees with His power as well? So where is the distinction, so the ta'weel of Two Hands to power cannot be correct.
Point 9: Al-Baqillani's Rejection of The Claimed ta'weel of Hand to Power and Favour
For the record, we can include here an excerpt from al-Baqillani's "at-Tamheed".
Chapter: Concerning Allaah Having a Face and Two Hands
View the original article on this (see here).
So here we have two most important people in the Ash'ari madhhab from the earlier, leading Ash'aris - both rejecting the ta'weels of the Jahmites and Mu'tazilites that the Later Ash'aris adopted!
Point 10: Why This ta'weel is a Fraud
It is not possible for anyone in the late 20th century to claim to be ignorant of what is manifestly and clearly reported from the Salaf of their refutation and repudiation of the Jahmite ta'weels that originated in the second century after hijrah, amongst which is their refutations of the ta'weel of Hand to mean power of favour (as it relates to Allaah's attribution of Hand to Himself).
And we find that the various collectors of hadeeth (al-Bukari, Muslim, Abu Dawud etc.) included chapters in their works in refutation of the Jahmites specifically on issues such as this. It is not possible for anyone who steps up to speak on the issue of the attribute of the Hand, after having looked at everything spoken and written on this specific issue from the Salaf, and likewise what is found in the Arabic language, to claim to be ignorant, or to claim that the above verse is an instance of ta'weel of the Salaf.
So either one has not deliberately looked into all of that and is therefore speaking in ignorance of what the Salaf were upon. Or one is deliberately trying to deceive with full knowledge. Thus, there is no excuse for anyone claiming that this verse is an instance of ta'weel by the Salaf.
Point 11: What is Now Obligatory Upon You
After what has preceded, we have no doubt that you fear being held to account by your Lord for this fraud on the Day when there will be no excuses. More specifically, it is befitting that you say:
So if you were to do that, it would lighten your burden and save you from the ignominy of having to face those whom you lied upon on the Day of Judgement, and remember that there is no sagheerah or kabeerah except that it is recorded in a book, and neither did you write or speak this ta'weel fraud of yours except that the Angels recorded it, and it will be opened up and you will be held to account for it, and we seek refuge in Allaah from the accounting on that day. So appreciate this act of benevolence and be grateful and recant and repent and inform your followers of the same - lest you be made to carry the burden of tens of thousands alongside your own.
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