Explanation of the Six Stages in the Evolution of the Doctrines of the Qur'an Creationists Diagram
All praise is due to Allaah, the Lord of the Worlds, and may prayers and salutations be upon His Messenger, to proceed:
This is a diagram that shows the flow of the Jahmite usool (foundations) on the subject of Allaah's Speech and the Qur'an through the factions of the Mutakallimoon (Jahmiyyah, Mu'tazilah, Kullaabiyyah, Ash'ariyyah, Maturidiyyah), as well as the evolution of their variant sayings - all of which have the same root and foundation. All of the Mutakallimoon are "going with the flow", but differing with each other on subsidiary issues. The "flow" is to keep in conformity, in their sayings and formulated doctrines, with the Tawheed of al-Jawhar wal-Arad that is based upon the proof of "hudooth ul-ajsaam" which the bulk of their creed is based upon. This Tawheed of theirs is essentially to deny for Allaah attributes (sifaat), and those matters affirmed for Allaah in the revealed texts that they consider to be incidental attributes (a'raad), events, occurrences (hawaadith) - (alongside the differences between the Mutakallimoon in this regard as to what can and cannot be affirmed or negated from Allaah) - all of this so as to not to render Him a body (ajsaam). And this is the limit of their Tawheed and it is not the Tawheed of the Messengers, the people of knowledge or the Jamaa'ah of the Muslims.
Ibn Suraij as-Shafi'ee (d. 306H) said, as narrated from him by Abu Ismaa'eel al-Harawi in "Dhamm ul-Kalaam" and as mentioned by Ibn Taymiyyah in "Bayaan Talbees al-Jahmiyyah":
توحيد اهل العلم وجماعة المسلمين أشهد أن لا اله الا الله وان محمدا رسول الله وتوحيد اهل الباطل الخوض في الأعراض والأجسام وانما بعث النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بانكار ذلك
The Tawheed of the people of knowledge and the jamaa'ah of the Muslims is "I testify none is worthy of worship except Allaah (alone) and that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allaah". And the Tawheed of the people of falsehood is disputing about al-a'raad (incidental attributes) and al-ajsaam (bodies) and the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) was sent with the rejection of that.
So their Tawheed of al-Jawhar wal-'Arad is not what the Books were revealed with and nor what the Messengers were sent with.
ONE: The Saying of the Jahmites That Allaah Does Not Have Speech
The Jahmites negated all attributes for Allaah, since to them affirmation of a description of any kind would have rendered Allaah a body (jism), and it would oppose and invalidate the proof that the Jahmites were using of "hudooth ul-ajsaam" (the presence of qualities in bodies proving they are brought about, created) against the atheists they were debating with.
So they denied all attributes amongst which is "Kalaam" speech. And the Jahmiyyah did not deny that speech "Kalaam" is correctly defined as both meaning (ma'naa) and word (lafdh) and that "Kalaam" is with voice and is heard, this was never disputed by any faction amongst the various factions until Ibn Kullaab (d. 240H) appeared. The Jahmiyyah simply said, "Allaah does not have speech" and as for the Qur'an then it is something that Allaah created, just like other created things. And so the Salaf refuted them through the textual evidences that are abundant in the Qur'an, and likewise in the Sunnah such as his (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam's) saying, "There is not one of you except that His Lord will speak to Him, without there being any translator between him and Him." (Bukhari and Muslim).
So to these people, the Salaf said that Allaah does speak and that:
The Qur'an is the Speech of Allaah.
Affirming that Allaah has the attribute of speech, and what is said below regarding the Mu'tazilah was also said to these Jahmites as they were both agreed that the Qur'an is created.
TWO: The Saying of the Mu'tazilah
The Mu'tazilah, going with the flow, also debating the atheists and holding onto the proof of "hudooth ul-ajsaam" - with their own additions and refinements to it - said that Allaah does have speech, but it is something Allaah creates outside of Himself, and Allaah can be said to have "Kalaam" even though He creates it and it is established in other than Himself, such as Jibreel or the tree. And this is just like it can be said, "the House of Allaah", "the She-Camel of Allaah", "the Mosques of Allaah" and so on. So they agreed with the Jahmiyyah that the Qur'an is created, although they said it can be considered the "Kalaam" of Allaah from the angle mentioned. With this saying, they avoided invalidating their Tawheed of al-Jawhar wal-'Arad, and they managed to affirm "Kalaam" for Allaah as something created, separate from Him whilst maintaining their credo of "Allaah is not a jism" (i.e. cannot have sifat, a'raad or hawaadith) - whereas the creed of the Muslims is "There is none worthy of worship except Allaah alone" as has preceded from Ibn Suraij ash-Shaafi'ee.
To both the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah, the Salaf said:
The Qur'an is the Speech of Allaah, uncreated.
And this became the saying of all of the Muslims, at the head of them, the Imaams of the Salaf, and they declared a kafir, anyone who said otherwise. Al-Laalikaa'ee reports in his "Sharh Usool I'tiqaad Ahl us-Sunnah wal-Jamaa'ah", (2/275-277):
From Ahmad bin Abdillaah bin al-Khidr al-Muqree - [chain of narration] - that Abu Muhammad Yahyaa bin Khalf al-Muqree said:
I was with Maalik bin Anas in the year 168 H. and a man came to him and said: "O Abu Abdullaah what do you say about the one who says: The Qur'an is created?" He said: "A kaafir, heretic (zindeeq), kill him". The man then said: "I am just quoting these words which I heard". Then he (Maalik) said: "I have not heard them from anyone else, I have heard them from you".
Abu Muhammad said: Then that was a bit tough on me so I went to Misr and I met al-Layth bin Sa'd and said: "O Abu al-Haarith, what do you say about the one who says: The Qur'an is created?" And then I narrated to him the words said to Maalik, and then he said: "[Such a one is] a kaafir". Then I met Ibn Luhay'ah and I said to him the equivalent of what I said to al-Layth bin Sa'd and I narrated to him the words. He said: "A kaafir."
And in another narration from 'Abbaas al-Azhar there continues:
And then I came to Makkah and met Sufyaan bin 'Uyainah and narrated to him the words of the man (who came to Maalik bin Anas) and he said: "A kaafir". Then I went to Koofah and I met Abu Bakr bin Ayyaash and I said to him: "What do you say about the one who says the Qur'an is created?" And I narrated to him the words of the man. He said: "He is a kaafir and whoever does not say he is a disbeliver is himself a kaafir". Then I met Alee bin Aasim and Hushaym and I said the same to them both and narrated to them the words of the man and they both said: "A kaafir". Then I met Abdullaah bin Idrees, Abu Usaamah, Ubdah bin Sulaimaan al-Kallaabee, Yahyaa bin Zakariyyaa and Wakee' and I narrated to them and they said: "A kaafir". Then I met Ibn al-Mubaarak, Abu Ishaaq al-Fazaaree and al-Waleed bin Muslim, so I narrated to them the words and they said, all of them: "A kaafir."
And this was the situation in the last quarter of the second century hijrah. But the Jahmiyyah, Mu'tazilah gained strength politically and managed to influence certain leaders on this issue, and it was here that they put the Ummah to trial with their innovation.
The Salaf continued to stand against their innovation, refuting it by pen and word, many of them being killed, and their opposition culminated in the fitnah (tribulation) of Imaam Ahmad (d. 241H) and through Imaam Ahmad did Allaah aid the deen against the Nasty Jahmite Heretics.
The entire dispute at this point was regarding this Qur'an we have present with us, in letter and word, for there was no Muslim that believed in "two Qur'ans", or that this Qur'an was a "quotation" or "expression" of another unrevealed Qur'an and it was agreed upon by all factions up to this point that "Kalaam" is both meaning (ma'naa) and word (lafdh) together, and it is with voice, and is something heard - this being manifest and evident in the revealed texts.
When the Imaams of the Salaf had stated that "The Qur'an is the speech of Allaah, uncreated", a new faction emerged who would only say "the Qur'an is the speech of Allaah" and then remain silent. They were labelled as the "Waaqifah", those who pause and do not clarify. They were declared as misguided and astray and were considered a faction of the Jahmiyyah, since there was absolutely no reason or excuse for choosing to remain ambiguous after thousands of the leading Imaams of the Salaf had agreed upon the statement that the Qur'an is the speech of Allaah, uncreated.
THREE: The Saying of the Jahmiyyah Lafdhiyyah
When these Jahmites were subdued and humiliated, due to the stance of Imaam Ahmad through Allaah's aid and support, the Jahmites were in hiding and did not dare to utter their kufr so brazenly and openly any more. From here, we'll let Ibn Battah (d. 387, rahimahullaah, take over. Ibn Battah (d. 387H) said regarding the emergence of what would later became the view of the Kullaabiyyah and Ash'ariyyah from its Jahmee roots, in his "Ibaanat ul-Kubraa" in the book "ar-Radd 'alal-Jahmiyyah" (1/317-318):
Which translates as:
Chapter: Mention of the Lafdhiyyah and Warning From their Opinion and Their Sayings
Know, may Allaah have mercy upon you that a faction amongst the Jahmiyyah, out of the conniving of their hearts, and the vileness of their opinions and the repugnance of their desires believed that the Qur'an is created. And they alluded to that with an innovation they invented out of deception and misleading of the common folk, [all] in order to conceal their kufr, seeking to obscure their deviation from the one whose knowledge was little and whose disposition was weak. So they said:
The Qur'an that Allaah spoke with and said, that is the speech of Allaah, not created, and as for that which we recite and read with our tongues and which we write in our copies [of the Qur'an] is not the Qur'an which is the Kalaam of Allaah. This is only a hikaayah (quotation, narrative) of that. So what we read is a hikaayah (quotation, narrative) of that Qur'an with our own words (alfaadh), and our verbal expression (with our words) is created.
So they became subtle in their kufr and they used deceitful means in order to enter kufr upon the common folk with the most obscure way, and the most minute [in detail] of madhhab, and the most hidden aspect.
But that was not hidden, by the praise of Allaah, and from Him, and the goodness of his tawfeeq (granting of success) upon the great Scholars, the intelligent critics, until they [the Scholars] rejected as false what they [the Jahmites] fabricated and they unveiled the cover from the repugnance of what they concealed.
So their kufr and deviance became apparent to both the distinguished and the common folk. And the one who who was wise to that and knew where the repugnance lay in [the saying of the Jahmites] was the Shaykh, the Saalih (righteous), and the Imaam, the Scholar, the intelligent one, Abu Abdullaah Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Hanbal - may Allaah have mercy upon him. And the clarification of their kufr was manifest and clear in the Book of Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic, and the Sunnah of His Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam).
And the Scholars at the time of Imaam Ahmad (d. 241H) and after his death were wise to these conniving Jahmites who wished to conceal their innovation in a time when the affair had become difficult upon them. Thus we see Ahmad bin Sinaan al-Waasitee (d. 258H), and he is the Shaykh of al-Bukhaaree and Muslim, outing these Jahmite Zindeeqs from their secret hiding places.
In "Iktisaas ul-Quran bi Awdihi Ilaa ar-Raheem ar-Rahmaan" of Diyaa ud-Deen al-Maqdisi (d. 634H) - a book bringing together the ahaadeeth and narrations pertaining to the Qur'an being erased from this Earth and returning to Allaah, he brings - with an authentic (saheeh) chain of narration - the statement of Ahmad bin Sinaan al-Waasitee:
This translates as:
Whoever claims that the Qur'an is two things, or that the Qur'aan is a hikaayah (quotation), then he is, by Allaah, besides whom there is none worthy of worship, a zindeeq (heretic), kaafir (disbeliever) in Allaah. This Qur'an is the [very] Qur'an that Allaah revealed upon the tongue of Jibreel, upon Muhammad (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam). It it is not changed or altered. "Falsehood cannot reach it from in front nor from behind, it is a revelation (tanzeel) [sent down] from the all-Wise, all-Praiseworthy" [41:42], as Allaah, the Mighty and Majestic said: "Say: If [the whole of ] mankind and the jinn gathered together to bring a like of this Qur'an, they would not be able to bring a like of it, even if they were helpers to one another." (al-Israa 17:88)
And if a man swore an oath that he will not speak today, then he recited the Qur'an, or prayed, reciting the Qur'an (therein), or made salutation in the prayer, he would not have broken his oath. Nothing is to be analogised with the Speech of Allaah. The Qur'an is the Speech of Allaah, it began with Him (i.e. He spoke it), and to Him will it return. Nothing from Allaah is created, neither and nor are His Attributes, nor His Names, nor His Knowledge.
This species of Jahmite was the root of the emergence of the Kullaabi-Ash'ari doctrines on the issue of Allaah's Kalaam and the Qur'an.
It was during this time that both Imaam Ahmad and Imaam Bukhaaree subdued this tribulation and arrived at the truth in the matter, making it the followed, beaten track of Ahl us-Sunnah.
So Imaam Ahmad said, as is famous and well-documented from him:
Whoever says 'My pronuncation of the Qur'an is created' is a Jahmee and whoever says 'My proncunciation of the Qur'an is not created' is an Innovator.
This because the Jahmiyyah were using the fact that the actions of the servants are no doubt created, meaning that when a servant recites the Qur'an, his act of reciting, his voice is no doubt created. So as this was an accepted matter, they concealed their kufr behind this statement to use it as a means to invite others to their kufr, without alerting anyone to what they were really up to. So Imaam Ahmad was wise to these Jahmites and declared anyone who said this to be a Jahmee. At the same time, he also closed the other door and prevented people from saying that their recitation of the Qur'an was not created, as this saying was too an innovation that might lead people to believe their voices and their actions are uncreated.
And Imaam al-Bukhaaree, he wrote the book "Khalq Af'aal il-Ibaad" to establish that the actions of the servants when they recite the Qur'an are created. And he clarified this because some people had wrongly believed that the actual voices of the servants are not created or that when they hear a recitation of the Qur'an, they are hearing Allaah's speech directly and other such innovated repugnant sayings. So he wrote on this subject affirming that the actions of the servants are created, whilst distinguishing between the act (qiraa'ah, tilaawah) and the actual words being recited (maqroo', matluww), whilst noting that the words qiraa'ah and tilaawah can signify both the act of recitation, or the contents of recitation, and so you will see statements of others from the Salaf who prohibit the distinction between "maqroo', matluww" and "qiraa'ah, tilaawah", upon the understanding that "qiraa'ah, tilaawah" refers to the content of these acts (i.e. that being recited). But the intent of all of them was the same nevertheless, and they were all wise to the deception and trickery of the Jahmite Lafdhiyyah, the precursors to the Kullaabiyyah Ash'ariyyah on this issue.
So the truth became established and it was the saying of the Salaf:
That which is malfoodh, maqroo', maktoob (the words being recited, pronounced, or conveyed through the voice or writing) is uncreated and the talaffudh, qiraa'ah, kitaabah (acts of pronunciation, reciting, writing) are all created.
Imaam Ahmad (rahimahullaah) was also wise to the Kullaabiyyah who were discontent with the truth that had been manifest and they were simply wallowing around in the pits of the Jahmite Lafdhiyyah, discontent with the truth that had become manifest, and for this reason Imaam Ahmad used to scorn and speak ill of the Kullaabites, for they were Ahl ul-Kalaam and had an interest in not letting this issue die, and this matter is explained in what follows.
FOUR: The Saying of the Kullaabiyyah Ash'ariyyah of the Doctrine of "Kalaam Nafsee"
There are three stages with the Kullaabiyyah a) The innovation of the doctrine of Kalaam Nafsee b) their rejection that Allaah speaks with letter and voice and c) their rejection that Allaah speaks when and however He wills. These doctrines emanated through the failed attempt of the Kullaabiyyah to tread a middle ground between Ahl us-Sunnah and the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah - they ended up agreeing with the Jahmites and Mu'tazilah in reality, whilst feigning to agree with Ahl us-Sunnah through mere play with words, phrases and definitions.
The Kullaabiyyah submitted to the Jahmites and Mu'tazilah that this Qur'an present with us, in letter and word, recited, heard, memorized and written is created. This was due to their ignorance and incomplete knowledge of the usool of the religion and also because Ibn Kullaab and the Kullaabiyyah were also Ahl ul-Kalaam, and were upon that same flawed, false, corrupt intellectual proof of "hudooth ul-ajsaam", demonstrating the createdness of the universe through the presence of a'raad (incidental attributes) and hawaadith (events, occurrences) in bodies. However, Ibn Kullaab was the first of the Mutakallimoon to affirm the attributes of the essence (sifaat dhaatiyyah). And he became known as the "Imaam of the Sifaatiyyah", and you will see that the early Ash'arites really praise Ibn Kullaab a lot in their books and treat him as "amongst their associates" as al-Juwaynee (d. 478H) writes in "al-Irshaad", and Ibn Fawrak (d. 406H) refers to him as "Imaam" on many occasions. What distinguished the Kullaabi creed was their rejection of the Sifaat Fi'liyyah - meaning the actions of Allaah that are tied to His will and power, and this is the middle ground they took between Ahl us-Sunnah and the Mu'tazilah, Jahmiyyah.
The Kullaabiyyah had a problem on account of the particular doctrine they settled upon regarding Allaah's Attributes (one that the Ash'arites plagiarized and upon which the creed of the "Ash'ariyyah" was built).
The problem was how can the attribute of "Kalaam" be affirmed for Allaah without at the same time invalidating that (flawed, corrupt) proof of "hudooth ul-ajsaam" which they had wrongly submitted was a truth that could not be challenged or disputed, and through which they submitted to the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah that Allaah could not be described with what amounted to hawaadith (events, occurrences) - meaning, actions tied to His will and power. It was here that the "Kalaam Nafsee" doctrine was born and innovated and it derived directly from the saying of some of those conniving, scheming Jahmites mentioned earlier by Ahmad bin Sinaan al-Waasitee (d. 258H) and as documented by Ibn Battah (d. 387H).
Whereas it was known that the definition of "Kalaam" in the language of the Qur'an and the language of the Arabs is both meaning (ma'naa) and wording (lafdh) combined, Ibn Kullaab found a way to affirm Kalaam but negate from it any notion of multiplicity (multiple specific instances of kalaam) tied to will and choice (speaking as and when one wils). Now that "Kalaam" is only the meaning present in the self, and not the actual speech that is stated and heard and which one speaks as and one when one wills (this being a sign of perfection), the problem is solved. We've just affirmed "Kalaam" and at the same time kept in conformity with our rational proof by not affirming "a'raad" and "hawaadith" for Allaah. So we're happy, the atheists are forced to be happy because now they can't criticize us for contradicting the proof we used against them to prove a creator, and we just have to watch our backs now against the Mu'tazilah whom we are pretending to oppose. So to iron out any other problems, and to prevent the Mu'tazilah from attacking us, we're also going to claim that this "kalaam nafsee" is just a singular, indivisible meaning, there is just one meaning, not two, three, or seventy million, and that this meaning is indivisible, thus multiplicity is negated, and thus we've also silenced those nasty Mu'azilah, and thus, just by playing and fooling with definitions and hoodwinking the people through these terms and definitions, we've become the champions of Islaam!
So they started bending over backwards to pretend to be in agreement with Ahl us-Sunnah, covering their backs, whilst hiding their agreement with the Jahmiyyah, Mu'tazilah - though the truth can be found, readily admitted, in some of their books.
To argue for their doctrine, they could find nothing in the heritage of poetry that defined the meanings and usages of words except a line of poetry of dubious origin from a Trinitarian Christian called al-Akhtal. Further, they used verses from the Qur'an that referred to speech with taqyeed (restriction), and likewise from the Sunnah, in order to claim that "Kalaam" is just the meaning in the self. These proofs they used all make reference to "speech" in a restricted sense, like when a person says, "I said to myself..." meaning thinking inside myself, however these types of statements are all examples restricted (muqayyad) usage. As for when "speech" (Kalaam) is used unrestrictedly, it means nothing but letter, word and voice. This is the bulk of what the deen of the Ash'arite heretics is built upon, playing with definitions and innovating new ones which they use to conceal and protect their doctrines which are those of the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah in reality, and using these definitions to make it look as if they in agreement with Ahl us-Sunnah. Thus, now they can say, "Hey! We affirm the attribute of kalaam! Don't lie upon us", whereas in reality they affirm no such thing. They affirm an innovated attribute that Allaah did not affirm for Himself (kalaam nafsee) and negated from Him the actual attribute that He did affirm for Himself (kalaam, as properly understood in the language of the Qur'an and the language of the Arabs).
When these heretics abandoned sanity and threw it into the wells, ditches and oceans to come out with this nonsense, the Salaf stood against them and refuted their falsehood, and so they said:
The Qur'an is the Speech of Allaah, uncreated. He spoke it in reality.
And this was to affirm that "Kalaam" is not just the meaning in the self without actual speech that is heard, as that would make Allaah no different to the dumb and mute, and Allaah in many verses in the Qu'ran argues against the Mushrikeen in their worship of things that are not able to speak, or return any speech, such as in the story of Ibrahim smashing the idols, or the calf worshipped by Banee Israa'eel.
فَأَخْرَجَ لَهُمْ عِجْلًا جَسَدًا لَهُ خُوَارٌ فَقَالُوا هَذَا إِلَهُكُمْ وَإِلَهُ مُوسَى فَنَسِيَ أَفَلَا يَرَوْنَ أَلَّا يَرْجِعُ إِلَيْهِمْ قَوْلًا وَلَا يَمْلِكُ لَهُمْ ضَرًّا وَلَا نَفْعًا
Then he (as-Saamiree) took out (of the fire) for them a statue of a calf which seemed to low (give out a low sound). They said: "This is your ilah (god), and the ilah (god) of Moses, but [Moses] has forgotten (his god)." Did they not see that it could not return them [any] saying (as an answer), and that it had no power either to harm them or to do them good? (Ta-Ha 20:88-89)
Thus, Allaah established that speech is from the characteristics of Ilaahiyyah, alongside causing benefit and harm, and He falsified the claim of as-Saamiree of Ilaahiyyah for the calf. With this and many other proofs the Salaf rendered the sayings of the Kullaabites as utter falsehood.
FIVE: The Saying of the Kullaabiyyah Ash'ariyyah of the Doctrine of "Hikaayah" and "Ibaarah"
This is a consequence of their defintion of "Kalaam" to be "Kalaam Nafsee" built upon the poetry of dubious origin ascribed to a Trinitarian Christian called al-Akhtal, which they then supplemented with Qur'anic verses they thought support them, when in fact they are against them - that's the subject of another article specifically on the "Kalaam Nafsee" doctrine.
So following their predecessors, the Jahmiyyah Lafdhiyyah, who were the originators of the idea that this Qur'an is a "hikaayah" of the Qur'an that is with Allaah (see the quotes from Ahmad bin Sinaan al-Waasitee and Ibn Battah above), the Kullaabiyyah said this Qur'an is just a hikaayah of the "Kalaam Nafsee", and the Ash'arites made a slight modification to what they plagiarized from the Kullaabiyyah and said, "ibaarah" an expression of the "Kalaam Nafsee". However, the difference between those Jahmiyyah Lafdhiyyah who first spoke of the "hikaayah" and the Kullaabiyyah Ash'ariyyah was that those Lafdhiyyah did not hold any doctrine of "Kalaam Nafsee". This was the innovation of Ibn Kullaab (and he was followed in that by Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari), so his doctrine became more evil than that of the Lafdhiyyah who at least stated that there is a Qur'an that Allaah did speak that is uncreated, but it is not this one we have with us. Whereas the Kullaabiyyah said the uncreated Qur'an is only a meaning (ma'naa) present with Allaah's Self, and Allaah never "spoke" any Qur'an in reality (upon the proper meaning of "Kalaam"), and that which we have with us is just a "quotation" or "expression" of that meaning present with Allaah's Self from eternity.
Ahl us-Sunnah stood to refute these Kullaabites and Ash'arites whose saying was in reality worse than the Jahmite Lafdhiyyah that appeared after the tribulation of Imaam Ahmad (rahimahullaah), and they stood to established that Allaah speaks with a voice, unlike the voices of the creation.
The evidences that Allaah speaks with a voice that is heard are numerous and abundant in the Book and the Sunnah, and perhaps a separate article can be dedicated to it. However briefly, Allaah in the Qur'an affirms for Himself "qawl" and "Kalaam" and "munaadaah" and "munaajaah" and "hadeeth", and He ordered Moses to "istami'" (listen) to what was to be revealed to him (Taha 20:13), and this collectively cannot be dismissed as being just "Kalaam Nafsee" (inward silent speech) as is claimed by the Heretical Innovators. Then there are many proofs in the Sunnah likewise, and al-Bukhaaree has brought some ahaadeeth in what has been quoted from him further below. Further, it was the ijmaa of the Salaf, and there was no dispute concerning this until Ibn Kullaab (d. 240H) came along and innovated this "Kalaam Nafsee" doctrine that was later taken up by the Ash'arites.
Abu Nasr as-Sijzee (d. 444H) said in his book "Risaalah Ilaa Ahl Zubayd" - which is a book written to refute the Jahmite Lafdhiyyah taking the guise of "Ash'arites" - in the opening pages:
اعلموا ـ أرشدنا الله وإياكم ـ أنه لم يكن خلاف بين الخلق على اختلاف نحلهم من أول الزمان إلى الوقت الذي ظهر فيه ابن كلاب والقلانسي والصالحي والأشعري وأقرانهم الذين يتظاهرون بالرد على المعتزلة وهم معهم بل أخس حالاً منهم في الباطن في أن الكلام لا يكون إلا حرفاً وصوتاً ذا تأليف واتساق وإن اختلفت به اللغات
Know - may Allaah guide us and you - that there did not used to be any difference amongst the creation, despite the variance in their creeds, from the first era that Kalaam (speech) is not [anything] but letter (al-harf) and voice (as-sawt) that is composed, harmonious, even with the variation in languages [until] the time in which the likes of Ibn Kullaab, al-Qalaanisee, as-Saalihee and al-Ash'ari appeared, and their associates, those who make an open display of refuting the Mu'tazilah, whilst they are really with them, rather of a more vile condition than them inwardly.
Abdul-Kareem ash-Shahrastani (d. 584H), one of the important figures of the Later Ash'aris himself writes that Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari, in this subject of Allaah's speech (Kalaam) and letter and voice (al-harf was-sawt), that he broke the ijmaa' that existed previously and innovated a third saying not known before. In reality, it was Ibn Kullaab and not al-Ash'ari - but we can look at the saying of ash-Shahrastani (d. 584H) in another article in much detail, it is from his book, "Nihaayat ul-Iqdaam", where he says (p. 177), whilst noting that ash-Shahrastani's statements in characterizing the view of the Salaf are not entirely accurate and precise, but there is enough in what he has said that approximates to what is correct:
فأبدع الأشعري قولاً ثالثاً وقضى بحدوث الحروف وهو خرق الإجماع وحكم بأن ما نقرأه كلام الله مجازاً لا حقيقة وهو عين الابتداع فهلا قال ورد السمع بأن ما نقرأه ونكتبه كلام الله تعالى دون أن يتعرض لكيفيته وحقيقته كما ورد السمع بإثبات كثير من الصفات من الوجه واليدين إلى غير ذلك من الصفات الخبرية
So al-Ash'ari innovated a third saying and judged with the emergence of the letters, and this is the destruction of the ijmaa' (concensus) and he judged that what we read is Allaah's speech only metaphorically (majaazan) not in reality (haqeeqatan) - and this is pure innovation. Why did he not (simply) say that the revelation mentions that what we read and write is the Speech of Allaah without delving into its kaifiyyah (how it is) and its haqeeqah (its reality) - just like in the revelation many attributes have been mentioned such as Face, Two Hands and other than them from the sifaat Khabariyyah.
As for the affirmation of voice (sawt) for Allaah, then there was no dispute on this issue, and we can quote here from Imaam Ahmad and from Imaam al-Bukhaaree.
These are some statements of Imaam Ahmad from the book "al-Masaa'il war-Rasaa'il al-Marwiyyah An il-Imaam Ahmad bin Hanbal fil-Aqeedah", a collection of his statements from numerous sources regarding issues of aqeedah (1/302-303):
I asked my father (rahimahullaah) about a people saying: When Allaah spoke to Moses He did not speak with a voice. So my father said, "Rather, your Lord, the Mighty and Majestic, spoke with a voice, these ahaadeeth we narrate them as they have come".
And my father (rahimahullaah) said, "The Hadeeth of Ibn Mas'ood (radiallahu anhu): When Allaah speaks, the Mighty and Majestic, His voice is heard like the dragging of [iron] chains on rocks". My father said, "And the Jahmiyyah reject this".
And Abu Ya'laa brings with his chain of narration from Abu Bakr al-Khallaal: Narrated to us Muhammad ibn Alee: Narrated to us Ya'qub bin Bukhtaan [saying]: I asked Abu Abdullaah about the one who claims Allaah does not speak with a voice. He said, "Rather, He, the Sublime, speaks with a voice".
And al-Khallaal relates through another route from Ya'qub with an addition [in wording]: "We relate these ahaadeeth, every hadeeth that has an angle, they [the Jahmites] desire to confuse the people. Whoever claims Allaah did not speak to Moses [i.e. with a voice] is a kaafir (disbeliever)".
And Abu Bakr al-Khallaal relates from al-Marwadhee who said: I heard Abu Abdullaah, and it had been said to him that Abdul-Wahhaab [al-Warraaq] had spoken and said: "Whoever claims that Allaah spoke to Moses without a voice, then He is a Jahmee, an enemy of Allaah, an enemy of Islaam." So Abu Abdullaah smiled and said, "How excellent is what he said, may Allaah preserve Him.
Abu Ya'laa said: And through the narration of a group [of people] Ahmad has textually stated the affirmation of the voice.
Imaam al-Bukhaaree said in "Khalq Af'aal il-Ibaad", (Mu'assasit ur-Risaalah, Beirut, 3rd edition pp. 91-92):
This translates as:
And it is mentioned from the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) that he used to love that a man be of a soft, subdued voice, and he disliked that [a man] should be of raised voice.
And indeed, Allaah will call out with a voice, whoever is distant will hear it just like one who is near. And this is not [the case] for [those] besides Allaah, lofty is His mention. [Abu Abdullaah, al-Bukharee] said: And in this is an evidence that the voice of Allaah does not resemble the voices of the creation, because the voice of Allaah, lofty is His mention, is heard by the one who is distant just like it is heard by one who is near, and that the Angels will swoon (lose consciousness) [upon hearing] His voice, yet when the Angels call out [with their voices], they do not swoon [as a result], and Allaah the Mighty and Majestic said, "So do not set up rivals for Allaah..."(al-Baqarah 2:22).
And there is no rival (equal) for Allaah's attribute, and no likeness (mithl) and nothing [of the reality] of His attributes is found in the creatures.
Dawud bin Shaybah narrated it to us: Narrated Hammaam: Narrated al-Qaasim bin Abdul-Waahid: Narrated Abdullaah bin Muhammad bin Aqeel narrated to us: that Jaabir bin Abdullaah narrated to them: That he heard Abdullaah bin Anees (radiallaahu anhu) saying: I heard the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) saying:
The servants will be [resurrected and] gathered together, and He will call them with a voice, the one who is distant will hear it just like the one who is near, [saying], "I am al-Malik, ad-Dayyaan. No person of Paradise will enter Paradise whilst a person [destined for] the Fire seeks him for an injustice.
Narrated Umar bin Hafs bin Ghiyaath to us: Narrated al-A'mash from Abu Salih from Abu Sa'eed al-Khudree (radiallaahu anhu) [who] said: The Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam) said:
On the day of Resurrection Allah will say, "O Adam!" Adam will reply, "Labbaik our Lord, and Sa'daik." It will be called out with a voice, "Allah orders you to take from among your offspring a portion [destined] for the (Hell) Fire." Adam will say, "O Lord! Who are the portion for the (Hell) Fire?" Allah will say, "Out of each thousand - or he said nine hundred and ninety-nine." At that time every pregnant female shall drop her load (have a miscarriage). "And you shall see mankind as in a drunken state, yet not drunk, but severe will be the torment of Allah." (al-Hajj 22:2)
Thus, it is clear that al-Bukhaaree, like Ahmad and like all of the Salaf, upon consensus, holds that Allaah speaks with a voice that is heard. So the saying of the Salaf in response to these Heretical Innovators and tail-ends of the Jahmite Lafdhiyyah was:
The Qur'an is the Speech of Allaah, uncreated. He spoke it in reality, with letter and voice.
As for the opportunistic attachment of today's Jahmiyyah Lafdhiyyah going under the name of "Ash'arites" to Imaam al-Bukhaaree on the issue of the pronunciation of the Qur'an then it avails them nothing.
So these Jahmites going under the name of "Ash'aris" and claiming attachment to Imaam al-Bukhaaree have absolutely no choice but to affirm that Allaah speaks with a voice that is unlike the voices of the creation, as "There is no likeness unto Him", and their refusal means that they have testified against themselves with opposition to the Salaf, and refuge is from Allaah, that their hands, feet, skins, hearing and seeing will testify against them for harboring the kufr of the Jahmites of old!
Finally, we can close this section with a little gift. Shaykh Abdul-Qadir al-Jeelaanee (rahimahullaah) said in Ghunyat it-Taalibeen (Dar ul-Kutub al-Ilmiyyah, 1997CE, 1/131) regarding this issue, after mentioning many proofs for Allaah having a voice:
وهذه الآيات والاخبار تدل على ان كلام الله صوت لا كصوت الآدميين، كما ان علمه وقدرته وبقية صفاته لا تشبه صفات الآدميين، كذلك صوته، وقد نص الامام أحمد (رحمه الله) على اثبات الصوت في رواية جماعة من الاصحاب رضوان الله عليهم أجمعين، خلاف ما قالت الأشعرية من أن كلام الله معنى قائم بنفسه، والله حسيب كل مبتدع ضال مضل، فالله سبحانه لم يزل متكلماً وقد أحاط كلامه بجميع معاني الأمر والنهي والاستخبار
And these verses and narrations prove that the Speech (Kalaam) of Allaah is with a voice, not like the voices of men, just like His knowledge, power, and remaining attributes do not resemble the attributes of men, then likewise His voice. And Imaam Ahmad (rahimahullaa) has textually stated the affirmation of voice (sawt) in the narration of a group from his companions, may Allaah be pleased with them all, in opposition to what the Ash'arites said, that the Speech (Kalaam) of Allaah is just the meaning established with His Self, and Allaah is the reckoner of every Innovator (mubtadi'), misguided (daall), misguiding others (mudill). For Allaah, the Sublime, has never ceased to be mutakallim (one who speaks), and His Speech (Kalaam) comprises all of the meanings of command (amr), prohibition (nahy) and al-istikhbaar (inquiry).
And this is a statement of truth from the pen of a wali from the awliyaa of Allaah - Allaah speaks with a voice that is unlike the voices of the creation and tabdee' and tadleel of the Ash'arites! And is it possible for one to be considered a wali from the awliyaa of Allaah, and at the same time be possible for him to utter what is in the view of the Ash'arite Jahmite Lafdhiyyah, plain manifest kufr?!
SIX: The Saying of the Kullaabiyyah Ash'ariyyah That Allaah Spoke the Qur'an Just Once In Eternity
This saying of theirs is again based around their doctrine of "Kalaam Nafsee" which was innovated to avoid ascribing what the Kullaabiyyah deem as "hawaadith" (events, occurrences) to Allaah. And so they rejected that Allaah speaks as and when he wills. Therefore their saying was that Allaah's "Kalaam" is a singular, indivisible meaning, that is present with Allaah from eternity, and his speaking of that Kalaam is understood in the sense that it is present with His Self from eternity and as such it is "spoken only once", or "it is continuously being spoken", from the angle that it is only a single meaning established with His Self from eternity, that does not divide, renew or reecur. In other words it is only ever spoken with once, with that one instance of speaking (of that singular indivisible meaning) being spoken for eternity (without this being tied to Allaah's will) - this is generally what their saying reduces to.
The reason for this doctrine of theirs was that since the Kullaabiyyah were debating with the Mu'tazilah and the Mu'tazilah held that affirming what they call a'raad (incidental attributes) and hawaadith (events) cannot be reconciled with the intellectual prooof of hudooth ul-ajsaam for demonstrating the universe is created that all factions were agreed upon, then they had to be rejected. And what the Mu'tazilah meant by a'raad, were not just attributes which are temporarily in a thing, such as a headache in a person, but they meant attributes such as hearing, seeing, knowing and so on. And by hawaadith they did not just mean events that occur in a place, but they meant the actions being performed by a living entity out of its choice and will.
So the Kullaabiyyah did not agree with them on the a'raad and found a way to rationally justify the affirmation of the attributes of hearing, seeing, life, knowledge, will, power, speech without at the same time invalidating the intellectual proof of "hudooth ul-ajsaam". However, they were unable to rebut the Mu'tazilah on the other issue and so they submitted to the Mu'tazilah regarding the issue of "hawaadith" (events) and believing that Allaah having actions tied to His will and power, could not be reconciled with their intellectual proof, they rejected that Allaah speaks as and when He wills, and the Kalaam Nafsee doctrine was devised with this in mind.
So the Salaf responded to these people, who were Ibn Kullaab and the Kullaabiyyah, al-Haarith al-Muhaasibee, Abu al-Abbaas al-Qalaanisee, Ibn Mahdee at-Tabaree, Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'aree and they said:
The Qur'an is the Speech of Allaah, uncreated. He spoke it in reality, with letter and voice. He speaks with whatever He wills and whenever He wills.
And the proof that Allaah speaks with what He wills whenever He wills is manifest and clear in the revealed texts, it is not possible to oppose or reject it with the type tahreef and ta'weel that these Mutakallimoon try to get away with. And and to see proofs of that, refer to this article in particular which documents some of those proofs just from the Qur'an.
However, the doctrine of negating "hawaadith" from Allaah is what the deen of the Kullaabiyyah was built upon and it is the deen of the Ash'ariyyah, having taken it from the Kullaabiyyah, and this creed also affected many of the scholars associated with the four schools of jurisprudence (Hanafis, Malikis, Shafi'is Hanbalis) and from the Hanbalis the likes of Abu Ya'laa and Ibn az-Zaaghuni were affected by this Kullaabi doctrine.
To follow inshaa'Allaah.