Destroying the Slander of Tajsim (Anthropomorphism) Against Ahl al-Sunnah wal-Jamaa'ah: Part 8 - An Eleven Point Summary of What Has Preceded So Far|
Posted by Abu.Iyaad on Saturday, December, 18 2010 and filed under Articles
Key topics: Tajsim Mujassimah Hishaamiyyah Karraamiyyah
The First Point: There Are Only Two Groups
There are only two groups, in reality:
The Second Point: All the Ahl al-Kalaam Are United Upon the Proof of Huduth al-Ajsaam
The blood, puss and dung which is with Ahl al-Kalaam emanates from their agreement on certain matters, upon which the entirety of their theological activity and their conspiring against the aqidah of Ahl al-Sunnah is founded. They are:
The Third Point: The Proof of Huduth al-Ajsaam
The proof tries to establish the universe is originated and hence, the existence of a creator. The argument is:
The Fourth Point: Ahl al-Kalaam Differ With Each Other on Subsidiary Issues Only
The true and real difference between all the Ahl al-Kalaam (Mu'attilah and Mujassimah) is on subsidiary issues following on from or tied to the proof of huduth al-ajsaam. The core principle is "Whatever is not devoid of hawaadith (events, occurrences) is itself Haadith (originated)." The Jahmiyyah said names (which indicate attributes), attributes and actions are all events (hawaadith). Hence, they are denied from Allaah. The Mu'tazilah agreed and they just pretended to affirm the names to avoid scorn from the people. The Kullaabiyyah, Ash'ariyyah removed some of the attributes from this principle but agreed that the actions come under it. Thus, the very early Kullaabis and Ash'aris affirmed the sifaat khabariyyah (like hands, face, eyes, love, pleasure, anger) in addition to the seven they proved through reason, but denied all of Allaah's chosen actions, those tied to His will and power, which He does as He pleases. The Karraamiyyah also adhered to this principle (of al-Jahm bin Safwaan), but they had a different reading of it. They said Allaah was not eternally one who had actions tied to His will and power (like creating, or speaking) but He acquired them after a period in eternity. So this means he was actually devoid of hawaadith for a period of eternity and because of this He is not like the created bodies whiich are never devoid of hawaadith. Hence they are still in conformity with that premise (according to them). And the Maturidiyyah, they were very close to the Mu'tazilah in their version of the proof from the outset, which is why they did not have that ithbaat (affirmation) in certain areas found with Ibn Kullab, al-Ash'ari and their early followers. They were always close to the Mu'tazilah from the outset. The point here is that the real difference between them mall is this: What can we affirm or deny for Allaah and yet still be in conformity with the proof? That is what they are fighting over. Its an inter-kalaam thing. They are in fact all one united block. They are united in abandoning the Qur'an and the Sunnah and turning to Kalaam (and 'aql) as the foundation of theology. They are all trying to validate this proof of huduth al-ajsaam but are finding different ways of doing it.
The Sixth Point: Ahl al-Kalaam Operate Upon Polluted Language
These Innovators invent and fabricate their own definitions for terms which they need to sustain the edifice of blood, puss and dung which they built (ta'teel and tajseem). Thus, what they often mean by certain words and terms is not what is meant in the language of the Qur'an or the language of the Arabs. This type of playing around with definitions and devising definitions is integral to their theatrical theology and their books are replete with it. Because coherence in creed is only found in the revealed texts [which most of these people consider presumptions of Tajseem and tashbeeh of benefit only to the dumb commoners so that they don't turn to atheism] then as flaws begin to appear in their theology, they have to play around with definitions in order to continuously patch up those flaws. A prime example is their innovated definition of Kalaam to mean Kalaam Nafsee. Other terms include jism, makan, tarkib, waahid, ahad. Thus, they departed from the language of the Qur'an and the language of the Arabs to another type of language. And the person who is not aware of this reality will not be safe from their snares.
The Seventh Point: There Are Many Factions You Have to Separate Out In Your Mind
From the above it should now be appreciated that there are many factions one must distinguish between. And they are:
The Eighth Point: There Was Agreement Between Ahl al-Sunnah and Some of Ahl al-Kalaam on Certain Prominent Issues
The methodology of Ahl al-Sunnah, the recipients of pure fresh wholesome milk, is to affirm for Allaah everything which Allaah and His Messenger affirmed. It is one uniform subject. There is no differentiation betweens names, attributes or actions. Hence, they affirm the meanings and deny knowledge of their realities, and hence they deny tamthil, tashbih, tahreef, takyif, ta'teel. This is the plain manifest truth about which they had certainty. The Ahl al-Kalaam (in their various factions) however had another principle. Whatever their proof [of huduth al-ajsaam, upon particular rendering of each faction] allowed them to affirm, they affirmed, and whatever it did not, then they denied. The battle between the Salaf and the Ahl al-Kalaam was all over meanings. It was not merely about letters making up words, but actual meanings. It was on acount of meanings that the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah accused Ahl al-Sunnah of being Mushabbihah, and that is why they innovated ta'weel (which is really tahreef). Now there is something unique about Ibn Kullaab and al-Ash'ari (and their very early followers). They did not consider this proof to be obligatory and nor the only way to demonstrate the universe is originated. In fact in his book Risaalah ilaa Ahl al-Thagar, al-Ash'ari declares it an innovation and unlawful. For this reason, they did not see the affirmation of certain matters (such as al-'uluww and the sifaat khabariyyah) to clash with this proof or to necessitate Tajseem. Hence we see clear affirmation from them in these areas, with strong refutations against the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah and a rejection and falsification of their ta'weels. Likewise al-Baqillani is also unique in that whilst he declared this proof to be obligatory, he affirmed the sifaat khabariyyah and likewise al-'uluww. But those who came after considered this proof to be something which itself validates Islam, and some of them like al-Juwayni made takfir of those who reached maturity and did not learn this proof, whilst having the ability. Hence, they simply receded into the views of the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah with a graduated denial (of whatever the earlier Kullaabis and Ash'aris affirmed). So the point here is that we see closeness between Ibn Kullaab, al-Ash'ari [we are speaking of his days straight after leaving the Mu'tazilah] and to a lesser extent al-Baqillani and between the views of Ahl al-Sunnah in these areas. This closeness however disappeared very early, as early as Abu Mansur al-Baghdadi (d. 429H) who denied, al-'uluww, al-istiwaa, and the sifat khabariyyah.
The Ninth Point: Differentiating Between tashbeeh and Tajseem
This is a very crucial point. The Ahl al-Kalaam differed, some of them tended towards ta'teel and used language of negation (Allaah is not a jism...) and others tended towards Tajseem and thus they fell into a particular type of takyeef following on from that Tajseem (Allaah is a jism and He has this and that ...). So in other words, their rendering of the proof of huduth al-ajsaam led them to conclude Allaah is a jism (body) - although some of them clarified what they meant by this with definitions for the term "jism" (that He is "mawjud, exists" and "al-qaa'imu bi nafsihi, self-established"). And some of the Ash'arites expressed that this meaning is correct, although the wording is wrong. So after concluding Allaah is a jism (body) in this manner, they fell into a certain type of language of takyif. This was found with the Hanafi Mujassimah known as the Karraaamiyyah and likewise the Raafidee Mujassimah. So this issue of Tajseem is something unique to Ahl al-Kalaam. It has nothing to do with Ahl al-Sunnah, it is purely a Kalaam thing.
The Tenth Point: The Tajseem of the Raafidah and Karraamiyyah
Hence we see the language of takyeef in both the Raafidah and Hanafi Karraamiyyah, following on from their affirmation that Allaah is a jism (body) which followed on from their ilm al-Kalaam. Thus they began to say things like Allaah has a length, width, depth, colour, taste, smell, that He touches the Throne, that He fills the Throne, and that he extends in all directions and that He is above the Throne with an infinite distance or a specific distance and so on. All of this language of takyeef followed on from their Tajseem which resulted from their language of al-ajsaam wal-a'raad and their rendering of the proof of huduth al-ajsaam. As we said, this is purely a Kalaam thing. So the correct perspective is that those who have the pure, wholesome, fresh, refreshing, satiating milk rebuke all of the Ahl al-Kalaam together as one group. They say to the Mu'attilah who carry blood and puss "You left the Book and the Sunnah, turned to the language of the Hellenized Jews, Christians and Sabeans to prove His existence and then started refuting Allaah and His Messenger with your own reason ('aql)." And likewise they turn to the Raafidah and say "Why you stinking carriers of dung, you inherited that gross tashbeeh from your forerunners and then you added the Tajseem of 'ilm al-kalaam to it, as if your first stench was not enough to offend." And likewise they rebuke the Karraamiyyah Mujassimah who are not to be equated with the Raafidah for some of their leading imaams rejected the tashbih of the Raafidah. And likewise they affirmed "jism" for Allaah but upon a correct meaning (exists, self-established), and as for affirming hawaadith, then they did so upon their rendering of the Jahmee principle "Whatever is not devoid of hawaadith is itself haadith" so this again is purely a Kalaam thing, so they are rebuked in that regard along with their brethren, the Mu'attilah. So they are not to be equated with the Raafidah. So this is the correct and true perspective, it is the correct way of looking at things, because this is historical fact, it is the undeniable historical fact.
The Eleventh Point: The Tajseem and tashbeeh of the Ash'ari and Maturidi Callers to Wahdat ul-Wujood
By the grace of Allaah, you will note that there has never been any of the Scholars of the Sunnah, Hadeeth and Aathaar being prone to pantheistic beliefs such as wahdat ul-wujood (unity of existence). And the reason should be very clear. As for the Ahl al-Kalaam from the Ash'aris and Maturidis, then it is a recurring theme and pattern appearing amongst them, especially after al-Ghazali (d. 505H) combined an illuminist baatinee gnostic sufism with the sharee'ah and became the hujjah for every zindeeq who wished harm upon Islam and the Muslims like Ibn al-Faarid and Ibn Sab'een and other mulhids. So this gave those extremist Sufis a mainstream position, after they had been despised, and that has continued to this day, when you see this grossest of tashbeeh and Tajseem manifested amongst those professing Ash'ari and Maturidi beliefs. Take note, it is not amongst all of them, but it is within these Kalaam belief systems where this grossest of Tajseem and tashbeeh always manifests itself and you have to ask yourself the question, why?
Where We Go From Here
If you remember, in an earlier article (Part 3) we disclosed our tools and our approach and here they are again, you can see that we are making use of each tool in the right order.
We are creating a framework, establishing history, establishing fact, and building context, because it is only once this is laid down that you can then go and start discussing specific doubts and the specific misconceptions of the makhaaneeth of the Jahmiyyah. That's when the fourth tool comes into play and that time is very soon. Remember, we have plenty of these makhaaneeth of the Jahmiyyah out there on the field, operating with centuries of calculated deception. And if you enter the field with no tools, unprepared, they're going to snatch your money and your goods. So we suggest you that read and re-read all seven parts that have preceded to strengthen that knowledge in your mind, and that you give this particular article plenty of reads and re-reads. When you feel comfortable, you are ready to enter the field ... its not for the faint-hearted ...