Al-Qurtubi: Qaadee Abu Bakr al-Baqillani, Abu Hasan al-Ash'ari (Prominent Ash'aris) Hold Allaah Ascends Over the Throne Bi-Dhaatihi (With His Essence) And Is Above (Fawqa) His Throne|
Posted by Abu.Iyaad on Thursday, July, 09 2009 and filed under Articles
Key topics: Al-Qurtubi Abu Bakr Al-Baqillani Al-Uluww Al-Istiwaa Al-Qurtubi Abu Bakr Al-Baqillani Al-Uluww Al-Istiwaa
In previous articles, we documented the view of al-Baqillani, the most prominent early Ash'ari theologian, and stated that he held that Allaah is above the Throne, without that necessitating Tajseem or confinement. And on this basis, contemporary Jahmite Ash'aris need to repent from their slanders against the entire body of Ahl us-Sunnah, from the time of the Companions to this day of ours, since the most prominent or important Ash'ari theologian has confirmed that what is apparent in the Book and the Sunnah - that Allaah is above the Throne with His Essence, - does not necessitate at the same time that He is confined in space or a body like the bodies.
Unfortunately, Some of the less well-informed Ash'arites claimed that from the statement quoted, al-Baqillani says no such thing and they made remarks that indicate that the most they understood from al-Baqillani was that he denies makaan (place) and negates that Allaah is a body.
Here are the previous articles:
In his book "al-Asnaa Fee Sharh Asmaa Allaah il-Husnaa", Abu Abdullaah Muhammad bin Ahmad al-Qurtubi (and he is the mufassir, author of al-Jaami' Li Ahkaam il-Qur'aan) says, when discussing the numerous opinions held on the issue of Allaah's istiwaa (ascending) over the Throne (Volume 2, page 123):
And here is the translation of this statement:
And the sixth: The saying of at-Tabaree, Ibn Abee Zayd, al-Qaadee Abdul-Wahhaab and a group (jamaa'ah) of shuyook (scholars) of hadeeth and fiqh (jurisprudence) and it is apparent (from) some of the books of the qaadee, Abu Bakr [al-Baqillani] - may Allaah be pleased with Him, and [also] Abul-Hasan [al-Ash'ari]. And al-Qaadee Abd ul-Wahhaab quoted this from him, I mean from al-Qaadee Abu Bakr, textually - which is that He, the Sublime, ascends over His Throne with His Essence (bi dhaatihi) - and in some places they applied (the words) "above His Throne (fawqa arshihi)".
Al-Qurtubi makes it clear that Abu Bakr al-Baqillani held Allaah to make istiwaa bi dhaatihi (with His Essence) and that He is above His Throne (fawqa arshihi) and that this is the same view as Ibn Abee Zaid (al-Qayrawaanee al-Maalikee) al-Haafidh Abu Umar Ibn Abdul-Barr and Abu Umar at-Talamankee.
From adh-Dhahabee's Mukhtasar al-Uluww
Abu Umar at-Talamankee (d. 429H) in his book al-Wusool ilaa Ma'rifat il-Usool, in two volumes:
The Muslims from Ahl us-Sunnah are unanimously agreed that the meaning of His statement, "He is with you wherever you may be" and what is similar to that from the Qur'an is that it [refers to] His knowledge, and that Allaah, the Most High, is above the heavens with His Essence (bi dhaatihi), ascended (mustawin) over His Throne however He wills.
And Ibn Abee Zayd al-Qayrawaanee (d. 389H) said:
And He, the Exalted, is above His Glorious Throne, with His Essence (bi dhaatihi) and He is in every place with His knowledge.
And Ibn Abdul-Barr (d. 463H) after discussing the hadeeth of Nuzool:
This is an authentic hadeeth, none of the Ahl ul-Hadeeth have differed over its authenticity, and it contains an evidence that Allaah, the Exalted, is above the heaven, over the Throne, above the seven heavens, as has been said by the jamaa'ah and it is their proof against the Mu'tazilah, and this is more famous to the general and specific (folk) and more well-known for it to require frequent quotation ...
From Ibn al-Qayyim's Ijtimaa Juyoosh al-Islaamiyyah
From Abu Umar at-Talamankee (p. 142):
Mention of the saying of Abu Umar at-Talamankee:He said in his book, al-Usool, "The Muslims from Ahl us-Sunnah are agreed that Allaah ascended over His Throne bi dhaatihi (with His Essence)." And he also said in this book, "Ahl us-Sunnah are agreed that Allaah is above the Throne in reality (alaa haqeeqatihi), not metaphorically", then he quoted with his isnaad from (Imaam) Malik, his saying, "Allaah is above the heaven, and His knowledge is in every place", then he (at-Talamankee) said in this book, "The Muslims from Ahl us-Sunnah are unanimously agreed that the meaning of His statement, "He is with you wherever you may be" and what is similar to that from the Qur'an is that it [refers to] His knowledge, and that Allaah, the Most High, is above the heavens with His Essence (bi dhaatihi), ascended (mustawin) over His Throne however He wills."
From Ibn Abee Zaid al-Qayrawaanee (p.150):
...And He, the Exalted, is above His Glorious Throne, with His Essence (bi dhaatihi) and He is in every place with His knowledge...
And from Ibn Abdul-Barr (p. 143):
... and within this (the hadeeth of Nuzool) is evidence that Allaah, the Exalted, is above the heaven, over the Throne, above the seven Heavens, as has been said by the jamaa'ah, and it is their proof against the Mu'tazilah and the Jahmiyyah in their saying that Allaah is in every place and is not above the Throne...
And thus from all of this - and noting that we are quoting from al-Qurtubi who is considered an Ash'ari - it is established that the most important figure in the formalization of the Ash'ari madhhab, al-Qaadee Abu Bakr al-Baqillani, for certain, held Allaah to be above the Throne, with His Essence (bi dhaatihi), making istiwaa with His Essence (bi dhaatihi) whilst negating from this affirmation for Allaah any confinement by space or being a body like the created bodies.
And this is exactly what the Salaf, past and present held, in opposition to the Jahmiyyah, Mu'tazilah, the Theologians and the Jahmite Ash'aris of later times, who claim that declaring Allaah to be "above the Throne" necessitates confinement and Tajseem.
And strangely enough, al-Qurtubi - who is considered an Ash'ari - admits that the verses (of the Qur'an) and the narrations (from the Sunnah) indicate that Allaah is above His Throne, separate and distinct from all His creation, and that the Salaf clearly held Allaah to be above the Throne, separate and distinct from His creation, even though he himself does not speak with this or choose this view (!) - and we will cover this in a separate article inshaa'Allaah.