The Top Intellectual Frauds Perpetrated by Today's Jahmiyyah Posing as Followers of Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari - Part 1: Regarding the Qur'an|
Posted by Abu.Iyaad on Wednesday, December, 09 2009 and filed under Articles
Key topics: Jahmite Ash'aris
After abandoning the Mu'tazilah, Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari (d. 324H) adopted the creed of Ibn Kullaab (d. 240H) and his followers whose creed was to affirm all of what Ahl us-Sunnah affirmed inclusive of Allaah being above the Throne, with His Essence, and affirmation of the sifaat dhaatiyyah such as Face, Hands, Eyes, without ta'weel and tafweed, but to reject the Sifaat Fi'liyyah (actions tied to Allaah's will and power) for the reason that they could not answer the objections of the Mu'tazilah that affirming Sifaat Fi'liyyah necessitates Allah is a jism (body). So succumbing to that, the Kullaabis rejected the Sifaat Fi'liyyah (istiwaa, Nuzool, pleasure, anger, love etc.). The Early Ash'aris took on this madhhab of Ibn Kullaab and it became popularized through them and simply took on the label of "Ash'ariyyah", even though they (the Asha'riyyah) were not its originators. The Early Ash'aris maintained the bulk of this creed, but the later ones, starting from the end of the fifth century, reverted back to the doctrines of the Mu'tazilah and Jahmiyyah in certain issues, and the doctrines of kafirs like Ibn Sina (d. 429H) such as in their doctrine of "Allaah is not within the universe nor outside of it" see here), opposing the early Kullaabis in that. They also adopted the very ta'weels of the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah that the Early Ash'aris refuted.
Today what we have are Jahmiyyah who reject Allaah is above the Throne with His Essence (something the early Kullaabi Ash'aris affirmed) and they reject the sifaat dhaatiyyah such as face, hands, eyes, which the Early Ash'aris affirmed without ta'weel or tafweed and these Early Ash'aris rebutted the ta'weels of the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah, as well as their allegations of Tajseem. So these people who are present today, with all their institutions and centers of learning in all the various parts of the world, teaching what they claim is "Ash'ariyyah" are not in fact teaching the Kullaabi creed that Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari adopted after abandoning the Mu'tazilah. They are teaching the doctrines of the Jahmites especially in regards to the subjects mentioned.
So in this series of articles we will document the top intellectual frauds (in no particular order) being perpetrated by these people, deceiving the Muslims and hoodwinking them, causing them to be distrustful of the creed of the Salaf which is nothing but the manifest truth, and instead them directing them to their "Tawheed of al-Jawhar wal-'Arad" which uses nothing - in describing Allaah - but the very words, classifications, and terminologies of the very atheist Philosophers they claimed to oppose!
Intellectual Fraud Regarding the Subject of the Qur'an and Whether It is Created or Not
The Mutakallimoon (Jahmiyyah, Mu'tazilah, Ash'ariyyah) reject that Allaah has actions tied to His will and power, and they were forced to hold this position because they used a false, corrupt intellectual proof against the Atheists to prove that the universe is created, and this proof is through the demonstration that the bodies (ajsaam) that make up the universe are subject to occurrences (hawaadith), and this is a proof that the bodies themselves are occurrences (hawaadith), and are therefore created, and thus there must be a creator. Then they made this proof to be the ultimate truth without which the veracity of Islam (and of prophethood and resurrection) cannot be established. And when they did this, they were forced to reject Allaah's Names and Attributes. So the Jahmiyyah rejected everything because describing Allaah with anything would necessitate He is a body (jism), and the Mu'tazilah affirmed the Names (only outwardly), finding a way to rationally justify their affirmation whilst rejecting all the Attributes, sifaat dhaatiyyah (Attributes of the Essence) and Sifaat Fi'liyyah (actions tied to Allaah's will). And the Kullaabiyyah Ash'ariyyah affirmed the Names and Attributes of the Essence but rejected the Sifaat Fi'liyyah (actions tied to Allaah's will).
So the Jahmiyyah said that Allaah does not speak at all and this Qur'an we have, recited, heard, memorized, in letter and word, is created, Allaah created it. And the Mu'tazilah said this Qur'an we have is created, but it can be said to be Allaah's "Kalaam" in the same way that we say "the House of Allaah" and "the Messenger of Allaah" and "the She-Camel of Allaah" and so on. And the Salaf stood against them and affirmed that this Qur'an we have, in letter and word, recited, heard and memorized, whether spoken by Allaah, or spoken by Jibreel, or spoken by Muhammad (alayhis salaam), or whether found in the Preserved Tablet, all of it is a single Qur'an and it is all uncreated - meaning the words of this Qur'an, because they originated with Allaah, and they are from Allaah's speech which is uncreated.
So then came Ibn Kullaab al-Qattan al-Basri and whilst affirming that this Qur'an we have, recited, heard, memorized, in letter and word, is created, he innovated a saying, which is that Allaah's "Kalaam" is simply a meaning (ma'naa) that resides with Allaah's self, and that is uncreated, and as for this Qur'an we have, it is a "quotation" (hikaayah) of that meaning, and that this Qur'an is created. And this view was taken up by Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari who said what we have is an "expression" (ibaarah), and not a quotation, and this saying was taken up by the Ash'arites thereafter.
The Intellectual Fraud
Whilst the Ash'arites of the past dabbled in Ilm ul-Kalam and were simply trying to fiddle around with words and definitions and terms and classifications to to fudge their way into a middle ground between the Mu'tazilah and Ahl us-Sunnah (between negation and affirmation), and may have been sincere in their efforts - today's Jahmiyyah really have no excuse to be speaking with the doctrines of the Jahmites and to call themselves Ash'aris in the process especially when the truth has been made readily apparent about the true nature of these doctrines.
Thus, the fraud is:
Peddling the doctrines of the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah that this Qur'an present with us on this earth, spoken by Allaah, in letter and word, revealed to Muhammad (alayhis salaam) through Jibreel, conveyed to the Ummah by Muhammad (alayhis salaam), recited, heard and memorized - which the Salaf said was all one Qur'an and is uncreated - to them it is created - and then to hide their belief that it is created to avoid scorn being poured upon them. To deceptively portray that their creed is the same as that of the Salaf by hijacking the statements of Imaam Bukhaaree that "the actions of the servants are created" and using that to peddle and whitewash their view that the Qur'an is in fact created, after trying their utmost at first to avoid their saying being propagated by confining its discussion to classroom settings only. And after it gets out in the open to say, "Hey, these issues are too deep, just say 'the Qur'an is the Speech of Allaah uncreated' and leave it at that", this being a ruse on their behalf to avoid the repugnance and filth of their saying from becoming manifest and all of what they say in public, in their polemics, is just the "public relations" front. Meanwhile, they continue to teach the saying that the Qur'an (i.e. this Qur'an that all Muslims believe in, the one Qur'an, the only Qur'an) is created (statement of kufr) in their institutions and learning centers behind closed doors, and this is the doctrine found in their standard curriculum textbooks.
If you want to see one of these Jahmites go ballistic, just start asking questions such as "Hey do you believe in two Qur'ans? Since when has this Ummaah believed in two Qur'ans?" and "Hey, dont you guys say this Qur'an which is made up of letters and words is created? And isn't that the very view for which the Salaf declared the Jahmiyyah as kafirs?" Whilst hating that their real view be propagated about them, when it comes out of the bag, they resort to chicanery in trying to whitewash their true and real viewpoint.
The Irrefutable Evidence
So here we present information that exposes their fraud in broad daylight, and they have no option but to make tawbah and stop peddling that viewpoint of kufr in all their institutions and centers of learning.
The Kullabiyyah [Ash'ariyyah] Innovated a Third Doctrine Into the Ummah Regarding the Qur'an
Prior to Ibn Kullaab (d. 240H), there were only two views, those who said Allaah's Speech is meaning and word and the Qur'an being Allaah's Speech is not created, and this was the saying of the Salaf and some other factions. And there were the Jahmiyyah and Mu'tazilah who whilst agreeing that this Qur'an is created, differed on whether Allaah has speech or not, the Jahmiyyah denying it, and the Mu'tazilah affirming it, but what they meant by Allaah's speech was just the speech He creates in others, and not that it is an attribute of His Essence.
Then Ibn Kullaab came along and he innovated a third saying, which al-Ash'ari and the Ash'arites followed him in and popularized this saying, and they innovated a new definition for "Kalaam" claiming it means only the "meaning" in the self, and not the actual words expressed, and in that they relied upon a line of poetry allegedly ascribed to a Trinitarian Christian called al-Akhtal. Then they looked for revealed texts they could use to support their claim, finding nothing but a handful of examples in which "Kalaam" is mentioned with taqyeed (restriction), and leaving the thousands of instances of the mention of "Kalaam" in its normal unrestricted definition of both meaning and wording. As a result of this they fell into the most ridiculous of positions. An example of this would be that we know in the Sunnah that "speaking" during the prayer invalidates the prayer. Thus, if "speech" (Kalaam) is defined as the meaning in the self only, then to how many people do thoughts and meanings occur which are not from the prayer itself? This would mean that the prayer of most people who stray in their concentration would be invalidated, without them even speaking a word, besides those that are part of the prayer. But this is the result of innovation and its people, one misguidance leading to multitudes of others.
As a result of the above, the doctrine of "two Qur'ans" was born - it wasn't a pretty saying, and the Ash'arites hold their heads down in shame as a result of it, and it is for this reason that the Ash'arites hate that it be revealed and propagated about them.
The Doctrine of Two Qur'ans
The Qur'an is Created is the Official Doctrine in the Books
The Haashiyah (Marginal Commentary) of al-Bayjuri (d. 1276H) upon al-Jawharah is the standard Ash'arite textbook taught in all their centers and institutions of learning. It standardizes the Asha'rite position on doctrinal matters, so what you find in it is the standard creed every Ash'ari is supposed to hold, after evaluation of all of the internal differences and corroboration of what is correct (in their view). The saying that the recited Qur'an (al-lafdh al-maqroo') is created, is the standard official doctrine in this book - this is the doctrine for which the Salaf declared the Jahmites kafirs.
The view of the Ash'aris and the Mu'tazilah is EXACTLY the same with the only differences being firstly, that while the Mu'tazilah say that Allaah can be said to be "mutakallim" (one who speaks) with "Kalaam" (speech) on account of the "Kalaam" that He creates in others besides him, the Ash'arites say Allaah can only be considered "mutakallim" with "Kalaam" with what is established with His Self of the "Kalaam Nafsee" doctrine they innovated. And secondly, what the Ash'aris call "Kalaam Nafsee" is what the Mu'tazilah call knowledge and will (ilm, iraadah). Their difference is only a matter of wording. Both are agreed that this Qur'an we have, in letter and word, recited, heard and memorized is created. We have firmly established this from their own books. Thereafter, they are only disputing about words and definitions, not about the substance or reality of the matter.
The Opposition of the Ash'arites to the The Salaf Who Held Allaah Speaks with Letter and Voice
The Ash'arites make an opportunistic attachment to Imaam al-Bukhaaree (when they attempt to whitewash their belief of kufr that this Qur'an present with us, recited, heard, memorized, in letter and word, is created) and in particular latching on to the issue of the recitation of the Qur'an. Imaam al-Bukhaaree's stance is to clearly distinguishing between the servants action of qiraa'ah (reciting) and the maqroo' (the words being recited), whilst that of the Ash'arites is to say that al-lafdh al-maqroo' (the words being recited) is created. Whilst the use of al-Bukhaaree's stance is clearly of no avail to them in this regard, except to the unaware and gullible whom they manage to confuse, then of further dismay it is to them that al-Bukhaaree, like all of the Salaf, affirmed the attribute of voice for Allaah, without takyeef and tashbeeh.
Thus the clangor made by the Jahmiyyah of today against those who follow the Salaf and affirm this same attribute in the same manner, is nothing short of an intellectual fraud. How they are able feel comfortable in their souls in making such a clear and bold display of dishonesty is currently unexplainable, but we are working on it.